Topic: Writing systems

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๐Ÿ”— Long S

๐Ÿ”— Writing systems ๐Ÿ”— Typography

The long s (ลฟ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced the single s, or the first s in a double s (e.g. "ลฟinfulneลฟs" for "sinfulness" and "ลฟucceลฟs" for "success"). The long s is the basis of the first half of the grapheme or the German alphabet ligature letter รŸ, which is known as the Eszett. The modern letterform is known as the short, terminal, or round s.

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๐Ÿ”— Kaktovik numerals โ€“ A base-20 number system that is visually easy too

๐Ÿ”— Numbers ๐Ÿ”— Canada ๐Ÿ”— Arctic ๐Ÿ”— Writing systems ๐Ÿ”— Indigenous peoples of North America ๐Ÿ”— Canada/Canadian Territories ๐Ÿ”— Alaska

Kaktovik numerals are a featural positional numeral system created by Alaskan Iรฑupiat.

Arabic numeral notation, which was designed for a base-10 numeral system, is inadequate for the Inuit languages, which use a base-20 numeral system. Students in Kaktovik, Alaska, invented a base-20 numeral notation in 1994 to rectify this issue, and this system spread among the Alaskan Iรฑupiat and has been considered in other countries where Inuit languages are spoken.

The image at right shows the digits 0 to 19. Twenty is written as a one and a zero (\ษค), forty as a two and a zero (Vษค), four hundred as a one and two zeros (\ษคษค), eight hundred as a two and two zeros (Vษคษค), etc.

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๐Ÿ”— Boustrophedon

๐Ÿ”— Greece ๐Ÿ”— Writing systems

Boustrophedon (Ancient Greek: ฮฒฮฟฯ…ฯƒฯ„ฯฮฟฯ†ฮทฮดฯŒฮฝ, boustrophฤ“dรณn "ox-turning" from ฮฒฮฟแฟฆฯ‚, bous, "ox", ฯƒฯ„ฯฮฟฯ†ฮฎ, strophฤ“, "turn" and the adverbial suffix -ฮดฯŒฮฝ, "like, in the manner of"; that is, turning like oxen in ploughing) is a type of bi-directional text, mostly seen in ancient manuscripts and other inscriptions. Alternate lines of writing are flipped, or reversed, with reversed letters. Rather than going left-to-right as in modern European languages, or right-to-left as in Arabic and Hebrew, alternate lines in boustrophedon must be read in opposite directions. Also, the individual characters are reversed, or mirrored. It was a common way of writing in stone in Ancient Greece.

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๐Ÿ”— Shavian alphabet

๐Ÿ”— Linguistics ๐Ÿ”— Linguistics/Applied Linguistics ๐Ÿ”— Writing systems

The Shavian alphabet (also known as the Shaw alphabet) is an alphabet conceived as a way to provide simple, phonetic orthography for the English language to replace the difficulties of conventional spelling. It was posthumously funded by and named after Irish playwright Bernard Shaw. Shaw set three main criteria for the new alphabet: it should be (1) at least 40 letters; (2) as "phonetic" as possible (that is, letters should have a 1:1 correspondence to phonemes); and (3) distinct from the Latin alphabet to avoid the impression that the new spellings were simply "misspellings".

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๐Ÿ”— Deseret Alphabet

๐Ÿ”— United States ๐Ÿ”— Linguistics ๐Ÿ”— Linguistics/Applied Linguistics ๐Ÿ”— Writing systems ๐Ÿ”— United States/Utah ๐Ÿ”— English Language ๐Ÿ”— Latter Day Saint movement

The Deseret alphabet ( (listen); Deseret: ๐”๐ฏ๐‘…๐จ๐‘‰๐ฏ๐ป or ๐”๐ฏ๐‘†๐ฒ๐‘‰๐ฏ๐ป) is a phonemic English-language spelling reform developed between 1847 and 1854 by the board of regents of the University of Deseret under the leadership of Brigham Young, the second president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). George D. Watt is reported to have been the most actively involved in the development of the script,:โ€Š159โ€Š as well as being its first serious user.:โ€Š12โ€Š

The Deseret alphabet was an outgrowth of the idealism and utopianism of Young and the early LDS Church. Young and the Mormon pioneers believed "all aspects of life" were in need of reform for the imminent millenniumand the Deseret alphabet was just one of many ways they sought to bring about a complete "transformation in society",:โ€Š142โ€Š in anticipation of the Second Coming of Jesus. Young wrote of the reform that "it would represent every sound used in the construction of any known language; and, in fact, a step and partial return to a pure language which has been promised unto us in the latter days," the Adamic language spoken before the Tower of Babel.

In public statements, Young claimed the alphabet would replace the traditional Latin alphabet with an alternative, more phonetically accurate alphabet for the English language. This would offer immigrants an opportunity to learn to read and write English, he said, the orthography of which is often less phonetically consistent than those of many other languages.:โ€Š65โ€“66โ€Š Similar neographies have been attempted, the most well-known of which for English is the Shavian alphabet.

Young also prescribed the learning of Deseret to the school system, stating "It will be the means of introducing uniformity in our orthography, and the years that are now required to learn to read and spell can be devoted to other studies."

During the alphabet's heyday between 1854 and 1869, scriptural passages in newspapers, selected church records, a $5 gold coin, and occasional street signs and correspondence used the new letters. In 1868-9, after much difficulty creating suitable fonts, four books were printed: two school primers, the full Book of Mormon, and a portion of it titled the Book of Nephi.

Despite heavy and costly promotion by the early LDS Church, the alphabet never enjoyed prolonged widespread use and has been regarded by historians as a failure. However, in recent years, aided by digital typography, the Deseret Alphabet has been revived as a cultural heirloom.

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๐Ÿ”— Blissymbols, an Ideographic Writing System

๐Ÿ”— Disability ๐Ÿ”— Writing systems ๐Ÿ”— Constructed languages

Blissymbols or Blissymbolics is a constructed language conceived as an ideographic writing system called Semantography consisting of several hundred basic symbols, each representing a concept, which can be composed together to generate new symbols that represent new concepts. Blissymbols differ from most of the world's major writing systems in that the characters do not correspond at all to the sounds of any spoken language.

Blissymbols was published by Charles K. Bliss in 1949 and found use in the education of people with communication difficulties.

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๐Ÿ”— Thousand Character Classic

๐Ÿ”— Korea ๐Ÿ”— China ๐Ÿ”— East Asia ๐Ÿ”— Writing systems ๐Ÿ”— Japan ๐Ÿ”— Japan/History ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Culture ๐Ÿ”— Korea/one or more inactive working groups ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Education

The Thousand Character Classic (Chinese: ๅƒๅญ—ๆ–‡; pinyin: Qiฤnzรฌ Wรฉn), also known as the Thousand Character Text, is a Chinese poem that has been used as a primer for teaching Chinese characters to children from the sixth century onward. It contains exactly one thousand characters, each used only once, arranged into 250 lines of four characters apiece and grouped into four line rhyming stanzas to make it easy to memorize. It is sung, much as children learning the Latin alphabet sing an "alphabet song." Along with the Three Character Classic and the Hundred Family Surnames, it has formed the basis of literacy training in traditional China.

The first line is Tian di xuan huang (traditional Chinese: ๅคฉๅœฐ็Ž„้ปƒ; simplified Chinese: ๅคฉๅœฐ็Ž„้ป„; pinyin: Tiฤndรฌ xuรกn huรกng; Jyutping: tin1 dei6 jyun4 wong4; lit. 'Heaven and Earth Dark and Yellow') and the last line, Yan zai hu ye (็„‰ๅ“‰ไนŽไนŸ; Yฤn zฤi hลซ yฤ›; yin1 zoi1 fu4 jaa5) explains the use of the grammatical particles "yan", "zai", "hu", and "ye".

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๐Ÿ”— Benjamin Franklin's 13 virtues

๐Ÿ”— United States ๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— International relations ๐Ÿ”— Technology ๐Ÿ”— Chess ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Politics ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Social and political philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Biography/science and academia ๐Ÿ”— History of Science ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Philosophers ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Modern philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Cooperatives ๐Ÿ”— Philadelphia ๐Ÿ”— Biography/politics and government ๐Ÿ”— Writing systems ๐Ÿ”— Fire Service ๐Ÿ”— Biography/Core biographies ๐Ÿ”— United States Constitution ๐Ÿ”— Politics/American politics ๐Ÿ”— Citizendium Porting ๐Ÿ”— University of Pennsylvania ๐Ÿ”— Pennsylvania ๐Ÿ”— United States/U.S. governors

Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1705]ย โ€“ April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a leading writer, printer, political philosopher, politician, Freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, humorist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod, bifocals, and the Franklin stove, among other inventions. He founded many civic organizations, including the Library Company, Philadelphia's first fire department and the University of Pennsylvania.

Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity, initially as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies. As the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation. Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical values of thrift, hard work, education, community spirit, self-governing institutions, and opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment. In the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, "In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat." To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin "the most accomplished American of his age and the most influential in inventing the type of society America would become."

Franklin became a successful newspaper editor and printer in Philadelphia, the leading city in the colonies, publishing the Pennsylvania Gazette at the age of 23. He became wealthy publishing this and Poor Richard's Almanack, which he authored under the pseudonym "Richard Saunders". After 1767, he was associated with the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper that was known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of British policies.

He pioneered and was the first president of Academy and College of Philadelphia which opened in 1751 and later became the University of Pennsylvania. He organized and was the first secretary of the American Philosophical Society and was elected president in 1769. Franklin became a national hero in America as an agent for several colonies when he spearheaded an effort in London to have the Parliament of Great Britain repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations. His efforts proved vital for the American Revolution in securing shipments of crucial munitions from France.

He was promoted to deputy postmaster-general for the British colonies in 1753, having been Philadelphia postmaster for many years, and this enabled him to set up the first national communications network. During the revolution, he became the first United States Postmaster General. He was active in community affairs and colonial and state politics, as well as national and international affairs. From 1785 to 1788, he served as governor of Pennsylvania. He initially owned and dealt in slaves but, by the late 1750s, he began arguing against slavery and became an abolitionist.

His life and legacy of scientific and political achievement, and his status as one of America's most influential Founding Fathers, have seen Franklin honored more than two centuries after his death on coinage and the $100 bill, warships, and the names of many towns, counties, educational institutions, and corporations, as well as countless cultural references.

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๐Ÿ”— Why Y is pronounced as "igrek"

๐Ÿ”— Writing systems

Y, or y, is the 25th and penultimate letter of the Latin alphabet, used in the modern English alphabet, the alphabets of other western European languages and others worldwide. According to some authorities, it is the sixth (or seventh if including W) vowel letter of the English alphabet. In the English writing system, it mostly represents a vowel and seldom a consonant, and in other orthographies it may represent a vowel or a consonant. Its name in English is wye (pronounced ), plural wyes.

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๐Ÿ”— โ€ซโ€ฌโ€โ€ฎtxet lanoitcerid-iB

๐Ÿ”— Computing ๐Ÿ”— Computing/Software ๐Ÿ”— Writing systems ๐Ÿ”— Typography

A bidirectional text contains both text directionalities, right-to-left (RTL or dextrosinistral) and left-to-right (LTR or sinistrodextral). It generally involves text containing different types of alphabets, but may also refer to boustrophedon, which is changing text direction in each row.

Some writing systems including the Arabic and Hebrew scripts or derived systems such as the Persian, Urdu, and Yiddish scripts, are written in a form known as right-to-left (RTL), in which writing begins at the right-hand side of a page and concludes at the left-hand side. This is different from the left-to-right (LTR) direction used by the dominant Latin script. When LTR text is mixed with RTL in the same paragraph, each type of text is written in its own direction, which is known as bidirectional text. This can get rather complex when multiple levels of quotation are used.

Many computer programs fail to display bidirectional text correctly. For example, the Hebrew name Sarah (ืฉืจื”) is spelled: sin (ืฉ) (which appears rightmost), then resh (ืจ), and finally heh (ื”) (which should appear leftmost).

Note: Some web browsers may display the Hebrew text in this article in the opposite direction.

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