Topic: Korea

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πŸ”— USS Pueblo

πŸ”— United States πŸ”— Military history πŸ”— Military history/North American military history πŸ”— Military history/United States military history πŸ”— Korea πŸ”— Military history/Maritime warfare πŸ”— Ships πŸ”— Pritzker Military Library πŸ”— Korea/North Korea πŸ”— United States/Colorado

USS Pueblo (AGER-2) is a Banner-class environmental research ship, attached to Navy intelligence as a spy ship, which was attacked and captured by North Korean forces on 23 January 1968, in what is known today as the "Pueblo incident" or alternatively, as the "Pueblo crisis".

The seizure of the U.S. Navy ship and her 83 crew members, one of whom was killed in the attack, came less than a week after President Lyndon B. Johnson's State of the Union address to the United States Congress, a week before the start of the Tet Offensive in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War and three days after 31 men of North Korea's KPA Unit 124 had crossed the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) and killed 26 South Koreans in an attempt to attack the South Korean Blue House (executive mansion) in the capital Seoul. The taking of Pueblo and the abuse and torture of her crew during the subsequent 11-month prisoner drama became a major Cold War incident, raising tensions between western and eastern powers.

North Korea stated that Pueblo deliberately entered their territorial waters 7.6 nautical miles (14Β km) away from Ryo Island, and that the logbook shows that they intruded several times. However, the United States maintains that the vessel was in international waters at the time of the incident and that any purported evidence supplied by North Korea to support its statements was fabricated. Pueblo, still held by North Korea today, officially remains a commissioned vessel of the United States Navy. Since early 2013, the ship has been moored along the Pothong River in Pyongyang and used there as a museum ship at the Victorious War Museum. Pueblo is the only ship of the U.S. Navy still on the commissioned roster currently being held captive.

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πŸ”— Kim Ung-yong: The man with the highest IQ

πŸ”— Biography πŸ”— Korea πŸ”— Biography/science and academia

Kim Ung-Yong (Hangul: κΉ€μ›…μš©; born March 8, 1962) is a South Korean professor and former child prodigy, who once held the Guinness World Record for highest IQ, at a score of 230+.

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πŸ”— Thousand Character Classic

πŸ”— Korea πŸ”— China πŸ”— East Asia πŸ”— Writing systems πŸ”— Japan πŸ”— Japan/History πŸ”— Japan/Culture πŸ”— Korea/one or more inactive working groups πŸ”— Japan/Education

The Thousand Character Classic (Chinese: 千字文; pinyin: QiānzΓ¬ WΓ©n), also known as the Thousand Character Text, is a Chinese poem that has been used as a primer for teaching Chinese characters to children from the sixth century onward. It contains exactly one thousand characters, each used only once, arranged into 250 lines of four characters apiece and grouped into four line rhyming stanzas to make it easy to memorize. It is sung, much as children learning the Latin alphabet sing an "alphabet song." Along with the Three Character Classic and the Hundred Family Surnames, it has formed the basis of literacy training in traditional China.

The first line is Tian di xuan huang (traditional Chinese: ε€©εœ°ηŽ„ι»ƒ; simplified Chinese: ε€©εœ°ηŽ„ι»„; pinyin: TiāndΓ¬ xuΓ‘n huΓ‘ng; Jyutping: tin1 dei6 jyun4 wong4; lit. 'Heaven and Earth Dark and Yellow') and the last line, Yan zai hu ye (η„‰ε“‰δΉŽδΉŸ; Yān zāi hΕ« yΔ›; yin1 zoi1 fu4 jaa5) explains the use of the grammatical particles "yan", "zai", "hu", and "ye".

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πŸ”— Fan death

πŸ”— Death πŸ”— Korea πŸ”— Skepticism πŸ”— Alternative Views πŸ”— Korea/Korean popular culture working group

Fan death is a widely held belief in Korean culture, where it is thought that running an electric fan in a closed room with unopened or no windows will prove fatal. Despite no concrete evidence to support the concept, belief in fan death persists to this day in Korea, and also to a lesser extent in Japan and Russia.

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πŸ”— Let's trim our hair in accordance with the socialist lifestyle

πŸ”— Television πŸ”— Korea πŸ”— Fashion πŸ”— Korea/North Korea

Let's trim our hair in accordance with the socialist lifestyle (alternatively translated as Let us trim our hair in accordance with Socialist lifestyle) is a television program that was part of a North Korean government propaganda campaign promulgating grooming and dress standards in 2004–2005.

It was broadcast on state-run Korean Central Television in the capital of Pyongyang and clips from the program were later rebroadcast on the British channel BBC One. The program claimed that hair length can affect human intelligence, in part because of the deprivation to the rest of the body of nutrients required for hair to grow. However, although some researchers have proposed that brain and hair are in competition from an evolutionary standpoint, cutting hair has no influence on its rate of growth. It was part of a longstanding North Korean government restriction campaign against haircuts and fashions deemed at odds with "Socialist values".

πŸ”— Unit 731

πŸ”— United States πŸ”— Russia πŸ”— Military history πŸ”— United States/Military history - U.S. military history πŸ”— Korea πŸ”— China πŸ”— Military history/World War II πŸ”— Japan πŸ”— Russia/history of Russia πŸ”— Japan/Japanese military history πŸ”— Military history/Asian military history πŸ”— Military history/Japanese military history πŸ”— Korea/Korean military history

Unit 731 (Japanese: 731ιƒ¨ιšŠ, Hepburn: Nana-san-ichi Butai), also referred to as Detachment 731, the 731 Regiment, Manshu Detachment 731, The Kamo Detachment, Ishii Unit, Ishii Detachment or the Ishii Company, was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Imperial Japan. Unit 731 was based at the Pingfang district of Harbin, the largest city in the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo (now Northeast China), and had active branch offices throughout China and Southeast Asia.

Its parent program was officially known as the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army (ι–’ζ±θ»ι˜²η–«η΅¦ζ°΄ιƒ¨ζœ¬ιƒ¨, Kantōgun Bōeki KyΕ«suibu Honbu). Originally set up under the Kempeitai military police of the Empire of Japan, Unit 731 was taken over and commanded until the end of the war by General Shirō Ishii, a combat medic officer in the Kwantung Army. The facility itself was built in 1935 as a replacement for the Zhongma Fortress, and to expand the capabilities for Ishii and his team. The program received generous support from the Japanese government up to the end of the war in 1945.

Unit 731 and the other Units of the "Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department" were biological weapon production, testing, deployment and storage facilities. They routinely tested on human beings (who were referred to internally as "logs"). Additionally, the biological weapons were tested in the field on cities and towns in China. Estimates of those killed by Unit 731 and its related programs range up to half a million people.

The researchers involved in Unit 731 were secretly given immunity by the U.S. in exchange for the data they gathered through human experimentation. Other researchers that the Soviet forces managed to arrest first were tried at the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials in 1949. The Americans did not try the researchers so that the information and experience gained in bio-weapons could be co-opted into the U.S. biological warfare program, much as they had done with German researchers in Operation Paperclip. On 6 May 1947, Douglas MacArthur, as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, wrote to Washington that "additional data, possibly some statements from Ishii, can probably be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as 'War Crimes' evidence". Victim accounts were then largely ignored or dismissed in the West as communist propaganda.

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πŸ”— LK-99

πŸ”— Korea πŸ”— Physics πŸ”— Chemicals πŸ”— Electrical engineering πŸ”— Materials

LK-99 is a proposed ambient pressure and room-temperature superconductor with a grayβ€’black appearance.:β€Š8β€Š LK-99 has a hexagonal structure slightly modified from leadβ€’apatite and is claimed to function as a superconductor below 400Β K (127Β Β°C; 260Β Β°F).:β€Š1β€Š The material was investigated by a team of Sukbae Lee et al. from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST).:β€Š1β€Š As of 26Β JulyΒ 2023 the discovery of LK-99 has not been peer reviewed or independently replicated.

The chemical composition of LK-99 is approximately Pb9Cu(PO4)6O such thatβ€”compared to pure lead-apatite (Pb10(PO4)6O):β€Š5β€Šβ€”approximately one quarter of Pb(2) ions are replaced by Cu(II) ions.:β€Š9β€Š This partial replacement of Pb2+ ions (measuring 133 picometre) with Cu2+ ions (measuring 87 picometre) is said to cause a 0.48% reduction in volume, creating internal stress inside the material.:β€Š8β€Š

The internal stress is claimed to cause a heterojunction quantum well between the Pb(1) and oxygen within the phosphate ([PO4]3βˆ’) generating a superconducting quantum well (SQW).:β€Š10β€Š Lee et al claim to show LK-99 exhibits a response to a magnetic field (Meissner effect) when chemical vapor deposition is used to apply LK-99 to a non-magnetic copper sample.:β€Š4β€Š Pure lead-apatite is an insulator, but Lee et al claim copper-doped lead-apatite forming LK-99 is a superconductor, or at higher temperatures, a metal.:β€Š5β€Š

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  • "LK-99" | 2023-07-27 | 101 Upvotes 58 Comments

πŸ”— An account of travel to the five Indian kingdoms – 723 CE

πŸ”— Korea πŸ”— Buddhism

Wang ocheonchukguk jeon (Korean pronunciation:Β [waːŋotΙ•Κ°ΚŒntΙ•Κ°ukk͈uktΙ•ΝˆΚŒn]; pinyin: wǎng wΗ” tiānzhΓΊ guΓ³ zhuΓ n; "An account of travel to the five Indian kingdoms") is a travelogue by Buddhist monk Hyecho, who traveled from Korea to India, in the years 723 - 727/728 CE.

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πŸ”— United States military and prostitution in South Korea

πŸ”— United States πŸ”— International relations πŸ”— Russia πŸ”— Military history πŸ”— Military history/North American military history πŸ”— Military history/United States military history πŸ”— United States/Military history - U.S. military history πŸ”— Korea πŸ”— Women's History πŸ”— Sexology and sexuality πŸ”— Military history/Asian military history πŸ”— Organized crime πŸ”— Gender Studies πŸ”— Feminism πŸ”— Sexology and sexuality/Sex work πŸ”— Tambayan Philippines πŸ”— Military history/Korean military history

During and following the Korean War, the United States military used regulated prostitution services in South Korean military camptowns. Despite prostitution being illegal since 1948, women in South Korea were the fundamental source of sex services for the U.S. military as well as a component of American and Korean relations. The women in South Korea who served as prostitutes are known as kijichon (κΈ°μ§€μ΄Œ) women, also called as "Korean Military Comfort Women", and were visited by the U.S. military, Korean soldiers and Korean civilians. Kijich'on women were from Korea, Philippines, China, Vietnam, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Indonesia and the Commonwealth of Independent States, specifically Russia and Kazakhstan.

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πŸ”— Kwangmyong, the North-Korea-Wide-Web

πŸ”— Mass surveillance πŸ”— Computing πŸ”— Korea πŸ”— Korea/North Korea

Kwangmyong (literally β€œBright Light”) is a North Korean "walled garden" national intranet service opened in 2000.

The network uses domain names under the .kp top level domain that are not accessible from the global Internet. As of 2016 the network uses IPv4 addresses reserved for private networks in the range. North Koreans often find it more convenient to access sites by their IP address rather than by URL using Latin characters. Like the global Internet, the network hosts content accessible with web browsers, and provides an internal web search engine. It also provides email services and news groups.

Only foreigners and a small number of government officials/scholars/elites are allowed to use the global Internet in North Korea, making Kwangmyong the only computer network available to most North Korean citizens. It is a free service for public use.

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