Topic: Japan

You are looking at all articles with the topic "Japan". We found 52 matches.

Hint: To view all topics, click here. Too see the most popular topics, click here instead.

๐Ÿ”— Glossary of Japanese words of Portuguese origin

๐Ÿ”— Portugal ๐Ÿ”— Japan ๐Ÿ”— Glossaries

Many Japanese words of Portuguese origin entered the Japanese language when Portuguese Jesuit priests introduced Christian ideas, Western science, technology and new products to the Japanese during the Muromachi period (15th and 16th centuries).

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach Japan and the first to establish direct trade between Japan and Europe, in 1543. During the 16th and 17th century, Portuguese Jesuits had undertaken a great work of Catechism, that ended only with religious persecution in the early Edo period (Tokugawa Shogunate). The Portuguese were the first to translate Japanese to a Western language, in the Nippo Jisho (ๆ—ฅ่‘ก่พžๆ›ธ, literally the "Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary") or Vocabulario da Lingoa de Iapam compiled by Portuguese Jesuit Joรฃo Rodrigues, and published in Nagasaki in 1603, who also wrote a grammar Arte da Lingoa de Iapam (ๆ—ฅๆœฌๅคงๆ–‡ๅ…ธ, nihon daibunten). The dictionary of Japanese-Portuguese explained 32,000 Japanese words translated into Portuguese. Most of these words refer to the products and customs that first came to Japan via the Portuguese traders.

Discussed on

๐Ÿ”— Poka-yoke

๐Ÿ”— Business ๐Ÿ”— Engineering ๐Ÿ”— Japan ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Science and technology ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Business and economy

Poka-yoke (ใƒใ‚ซใƒจใ‚ฑ, [poka yoke]) is a Japanese term that means "mistake-proofing" or "inadvertent error prevention". A poka-yoke is any mechanism in any process that helps an equipment operator avoid (yokeru) mistakes (poka). Its purpose is to eliminate product defects by preventing, correcting, or drawing attention to human errors as they occur. The concept was formalised, and the term adopted, by Shigeo Shingo as part of the Toyota Production System. It was originally described as baka-yoke, but as this means "fool-proofing" (or "idiot-proofing") the name was changed to the milder poka-yoke.

Discussed on

๐Ÿ”— Taikyoku Shogi

๐Ÿ”— Chess ๐Ÿ”— Japan

Taikyoku shลgi (Japanese: ๅคงๅฑ€ๅฐ†ๆฃ‹) lit. "ultimate chess" is the largest known variant of shogi (Japanese chess). The game was created around the mid-16th century (presumably by priests) and is based on earlier large board shogi games. Before the rediscovery of taikyoku shogi in 1997, tai shogi was believed to be the largest playable chess variant ever. It has not been shown that taikyoku shogi was ever widely played. There are only two sets of restored taikyoku shogi pieces and one of them is held at Osaka University of Commerce. One game may be played over several long sessions and require each player to make over a thousand moves.

Because the game was found only recently after centuries of obscurity, it is difficult to say exactly what all the rules were. Several documents describing the game have been found; however, there are differences between them. Many of the pieces appear in other shogi variants but their moves may be different. The board, and likewise the pieces, were made much smaller, making archeological finds difficult to decipher. Research into this game continues for historical and cultural reasons, but also to satisfy the curious and those who wish to play what could be the most challenging chess-like game ever made. More research must be done however. This article focuses on one likely set of rules that can make the game playable in modern times but is by no means canon. These rules may change as more discoveries are made and secrets of the game unlocked.

Further, because of the terse and often incomplete wording of the historical sources for the large shogi variants, except for chu shogi and to a lesser extent dai shogi (which were at some points of time the most prestigious forms of shogi being played), the historical rules of taikyoku shogi are not clear. Different sources often differ significantly in the moves attributed to the pieces, and the degree of contradiction (summarised below with the listing of most known alternative moves) is such that it is likely impossible to reconstruct the "true historical rules" with any degree of certainty, if there ever was such a thing. It is not clear if the game was ever played much historically, as there is no record of any sets having been made.

Discussed on

๐Ÿ”— Otokichi

๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— United Kingdom ๐Ÿ”— Japan ๐Ÿ”— Japan/History ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Biography

Otokichi (้Ÿณๅ‰ or ไน™ๅ‰), also known as Yamamoto Otokichi and later known as John Matthew Ottoson (1818 โ€“ January 1867), was a Japanese castaway originally from the area of Onoura near modern-day Mihama, on the west coast of the Chita Peninsula in Aichi Prefecture.

Discussed on

๐Ÿ”— Kei Car

๐Ÿ”— Automobiles ๐Ÿ”— Japan ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Car

Kei car (or keijidลsha, kanji: ่ปฝ่‡ชๅ‹•่ปŠ, "light automobile", pronouncedย [keหdส‘idoหษ•a]), known variously outside Japan as Japanese city car, ultramini, or Japanese microcar, is the Japanese vehicle category for the smallest highway-legal passenger cars. Similar Japanese categories exist for microvans, and kei trucks. These vehicles are most often the Japanese equivalent of the EU A-segment (city cars).

The kei-car category was created by the Japanese government in 1949, and the regulations have been revised several times since. These regulations specify a maximum vehicle size, engine capacity, and power output, so that owners may enjoy both tax and insurance benefits. In most rural areas they are also exempted from the requirement to certify that adequate parking is available for the vehicle.

Kei cars have become very successful in Japan, consisting of over one-third of domestic new-car sales in fiscal 2016, despite dropping from a record 40% market share in 2013, after the government increased the kei-car tax by 50% in 2014. In 2018, seven of the 10 top-selling models were kei cars, including the top four, all boxy passenger vans: Honda N-Box, Suzuki Spacia, Nissan Dayz, and Daihatsu Tanto. Isuzu is the only manufacturer that has never offered a kei-sized vehicle for either private ownership or commercial trucks and microvans.

In export markets, though, the genre is generally too specialized and too small for most models to be profitable. Notable exceptions exist, though, for instance the Suzuki Alto and Jimny models, which were exported consistently from around 1980. Kei cars are not only popular with the elderly, but they are also popular with youths because of their affordability.

Nearly all kei cars have been designed and manufactured in Japan, but a version of the French-made Smart was briefly imported and officially classified as a kei car, and since then, the British Caterham 7 160 has also received such classification.

Discussed on

๐Ÿ”— X-Seed 4000

๐Ÿ”— Architecture ๐Ÿ”— Japan ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Tokyo

The X-Seed 4000 is a visionary skyscraper for what would be, if it was built, the tallest building in the world. The idea was initially created and developed by Peter Neville. Its proposed 4-kilometre (2.5ย mi) height, 6-kilometre-wide (3.7ย mi) sea-base, and 800-floor capacity could accommodate 500,000 to 1,000,000 inhabitants. This structure would be composed of over 3,000,000 tons of pure steel.

It was designed for Tokyo, Japan by the Taisei Corporation in 1995 as a futuristic environment combining ultra-modern living and interaction with nature. Methods of transportation within the X-seed would most likely include MagLev trains.

The X-Seed 4000 "is never meant to be built," says Georges Binder, managing director of Buildings & Data, a firm which compiles data banks on buildings worldwide. "The purpose of the plan was to earn some recognition for the firm, and it worked."

Unlike conventional skyscrapers, to remain habitable the (X-Seed 4000) would be forced to actively protect its occupants from considerable internal air pressure and external air pressure gradations and weather fluctuations that its massive elevation would cause. Its design calls for the use of solar power to maintain internal environmental conditions. As the proposed site for the structure is located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, the most active volcano range in the world, the X-Seed 4000 would be subject to earthquakes and tsunamis.

A sea-based location and a Mount Fuji shape are some of this building's other major design featuresโ€”the real Mount Fuji is land-based and is 3,776 metres (12,388ย ft) high so is 224 metres (735ย ft) shorter than the X-Seed 4000.

The X-Seed 4000 is projected to be twice the height of the Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid at 2,004 metres (6,575ย ft). The Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid (proposed in 2007, also planned for Tokyo, Japan) faces most of the same problems as the X-Seed. Other projects that may be in the top five man made structures are the Ultima Tower 3,218 metres (10,558ย ft) in San Francisco, Dubai City Tower 2,400 metres (7,900ย ft) and the Bionic Tower 1,228 metres (4,029ย ft) in either Hong Kong or Shanghai.

Discussed on

๐Ÿ”— Retired Husband Syndrome

๐Ÿ”— Medicine ๐Ÿ”— Psychology ๐Ÿ”— Japan

Retired husband syndrome (ไธปไบบๅœจๅฎ…ใ‚นใƒˆใƒฌใ‚น็—‡ๅ€™็พค, Shujin Zaitaku Sutoresu Shoukougun, literally "One's Husband Being at Home Stress Syndrome") (RHS) is a psychosomatic stress-related illness which has been estimated to occur in 60% of Japan's older female population. It is a condition where a woman begins to exhibit signs of physical illness and depression as her husband reaches, or approaches, retirement.

Discussed on

๐Ÿ”— Gate Tower Building

๐Ÿ”— Architecture ๐Ÿ”— Japan

Gate Tower Building (ใ‚ฒใƒผใƒˆใ‚ฟใƒฏใƒผใƒ“ใƒซ, gฤ“to tawฤ biru) is a 16 floor office building in Fukushima-ku, Osaka, Japan. It is notable for the highway offramp at Umeda Exit that passes through the building.

Discussed on

๐Ÿ”— Dennis Ritchie

๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— Computing ๐Ÿ”— Computer science ๐Ÿ”— Biography/science and academia ๐Ÿ”— New York (state) ๐Ÿ”— New York (state)/Hudson Valley ๐Ÿ”— Computing/Computer science ๐Ÿ”— Software ๐Ÿ”— Software/Computing ๐Ÿ”— C/C++ ๐Ÿ”— Japan ๐Ÿ”— New Jersey ๐Ÿ”— Linux

Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September 9, 1941 โ€“ c. October 12, 2011) was an American computer scientist. He created the C programming language and, with long-time colleague Ken Thompson, the Unix operating system and B programming language. Ritchie and Thompson were awarded the Turing Award from the ACM in 1983, the Hamming Medal from the IEEE in 1990 and the National Medal of Technology from President Bill Clinton in 1999. Ritchie was the head of Lucent Technologies System Software Research Department when he retired in 2007. He was the "R" in K&R C, and commonly known by his username dmr.

Discussed on

๐Ÿ”— SuperH

๐Ÿ”— Video games ๐Ÿ”— Computing ๐Ÿ”— Computing/Computer hardware ๐Ÿ”— Japan ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Business and economy ๐Ÿ”— Video games/Sega

SuperH (or SH) is a 32-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Hitachi and currently produced by Renesas. It is implemented by microcontrollers and microprocessors for embedded systems.

At the time of introduction, SuperH was notable for having fixed-length 16-bit instructions in spite of its 32-bit architecture. This was a novel approach; at the time, RISC processors always used an instruction size that was the same as the internal data width, typically 32-bits. Using smaller instructions had consequences, the register file was smaller and instructions were generally two-operand format. But for the market the SuperH was aimed at, this was a small price to pay for the improved memory and processor cache efficiency.

Later versions of the design, starting with SH-5, included both 16- and 32-bit instructions, with the 16-bit versions mapping onto the 32-bit version inside the CPU. This allowed the machine code to continue using the shorter instructions to save memory, while not demanding the amount of instruction decoding logic needed if they were completely separate instructions. This concept is now known as a compressed instruction set and is also used by other companies, the most notable example being ARM for its Thumb instruction set.

As of 2015, many of the original patents for the SuperH architecture are expiring and the SH-2 CPU has been reimplemented as open source hardware under the name J2.

Discussed on