Topic: Russia/history of Russia

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๐Ÿ”— Lenin was a mushroom

๐Ÿ”— Soviet Union ๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/mass media in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Television ๐Ÿ”— Russia/history of Russia

Lenin was a mushroom (Russian: ะ›ะตะฝะธะฝ โ€” ะณั€ะธะฑ) was a highly influential televised hoax by Soviet musician Sergey Kuryokhin and reporter Sergey Sholokhov. It was first broadcast on 17 May 1991 on Leningrad Television.

The hoax took the form of an interview on the television program Pyatoe Koleso (The Fifth Wheel). In the interview, Kuryokhin, impersonating a historian, narrated his findings that Vladimir Lenin consumed large quantities of psychedelic mushrooms and eventually became a mushroom himself. Kuryokhin arrived at his conclusion through a long series of logical fallacies and appeals to the authority of various "sources" (such as Carlos Castaneda, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Konstantin Tsiolkovsky), creating the illusion of a reasoned and plausible logical chain.

The timing of the hoax played a large role in its success, coming as it did during the Glasnost period when the ebbing of censorship in the Soviet Union led to many revelations about the country's history, often presented in sensational form. Furthermore, Soviet television had, up to that point, been regarded by its audience as conservative in style and content. As a result, a large number of Soviet citizens (one estimate puts the number at 11,250,000 audience members) took the deadpan "interview" at face value, in spite of the absurd claims presented.

Sholokhov has said that perhaps the most notable result of the show was an appeal by a group of party members to the Leningrad Regional Committee of the CPSU to clarify the veracity of Kuryokhin's claim. According to Sholokhov, in response to the request one of the top regional functionaries stated that "Lenin could not have been a mushroom" because "a mammal cannot be a plant." Modern taxonomy classifies mushrooms as fungi, a separate kingdom from plants.

The incident has served as a watershed moment in Soviet (and Russian) culture and has often been used as proof of the gullibility of the masses.

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๐Ÿ”— The Dyatlov Pass Incident

๐Ÿ”— Soviet Union ๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Death ๐Ÿ”— Guild of Copy Editors ๐Ÿ”— Russia/physical geography of Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/history of Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/sports and games in Russia

The Dyatlov Pass incident (Russian: ะ“ะธะฑะตะปัŒ ั‚ัƒั€ะณั€ัƒะฟะฟั‹ ะ”ัั‚ะปะพะฒะฐ) was an event where nine Russian hikers died in the northern Ural Mountains between 1 and 2 February 1959, in uncertain circumstances. The experienced trekking group, who were all from the Ural Polytechnical Institute, had established a camp on the slopes of Kholat Syakhl, in an area now named in honor of the group's leader, Igor Dyatlov. During the night, something caused them to tear their way out of their tents and flee the campsite, all while inadequately dressed for the heavy snowfall and sub-zero temperatures.

After the group's bodies were discovered, an investigation by Soviet authorities determined that six had died from hypothermia while the other three showed signs of physical trauma. One victim had a fractured skull; two others had major chest fractures and the body of one of the group was missing both its eyes. One of the victims was missing a tongue. The investigation concluded that a "compelling natural force" had caused the deaths. Numerous theories have been put forward to account for the unexplained deaths, including animal attacks, hypothermia, avalanche, katabatic winds, infrasound-induced panic, military involvement, or some combination of these.

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๐Ÿ”— Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks

๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/demographics and ethnography of Russia ๐Ÿ”— Ukraine ๐Ÿ”— Visual arts ๐Ÿ”— Russia/history of Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/visual arts in Russia

Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of the Ottoman Empire, also known as Cossacks of Saporog Are Drafting a Manifesto (Russian: ะ—ะฐะฟะพั€ะพะถั†ั‹ ะฟะธัˆัƒั‚ ะฟะธััŒะผะพ ั‚ัƒั€ะตั†ะบะพะผัƒ ััƒะปั‚ะฐะฝัƒ), is a painting by Russian artist Ilya Repin. The 2.03ย m (6ย footย 7ย inch) by 3.58ย m (11ย footย 9ย inch) canvas was started in 1880 and finished in 1891. Repin recorded the years of work along the lower edge of the canvas. Alexander III bought the painting for 35,000 rubles, at the time the greatest sum ever paid for a Russian painting. Since then, the canvas has been exhibited in the State Russian Museum in Saint Petersburg.

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๐Ÿ”— Vasili Arkhipov โ€“ Soviet Navy Officer Who Prevented Nuclear Strike in 1962

๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— Soviet Union ๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Military history ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Military biography ๐Ÿ”— Biography/military biography ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Maritime warfare ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Cold War ๐Ÿ”— Cold War ๐Ÿ”— Russia/Russian, Soviet, and CIS military history ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Russian, Soviet and CIS military history ๐Ÿ”— Russia/history of Russia

Vasily Arkhipov (Russian: ะ’ะฐัะธะปะธะน ะั€ั…ะธะฟะพะฒ) may refer to:

  • Vasily Arkhipov (vice admiral) (1926โ€“1998), Soviet Navy officer credited with casting the single vote that prevented a Soviet nuclear strike
  • Vasily Arkhipov (general) (1906โ€“1985), Commander of the 53rd Guards Tank Brigade of the Red Army during World War II, twice Hero of the Soviet Union

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๐Ÿ”— Unit 731

๐Ÿ”— United States ๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Military history ๐Ÿ”— United States/Military history - U.S. military history ๐Ÿ”— Korea ๐Ÿ”— China ๐Ÿ”— Military history/World War II ๐Ÿ”— Japan ๐Ÿ”— Russia/history of Russia ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Japanese military history ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Asian military history ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Japanese military history ๐Ÿ”— Korea/Korean military history

Unit 731 (Japanese: 731้ƒจ้šŠ, Hepburn: Nana-san-ichi Butai), also referred to as Detachment 731, the 731 Regiment, Manshu Detachment 731, The Kamo Detachment, Ishii Unit, Ishii Detachment or the Ishii Company, was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937โ€“1945) of World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Imperial Japan. Unit 731 was based at the Pingfang district of Harbin, the largest city in the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo (now Northeast China), and had active branch offices throughout China and Southeast Asia.

Its parent program was officially known as the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army (้–ขๆฑ่ป้˜ฒ็–ซ็ตฆๆฐด้ƒจๆœฌ้ƒจ, Kantลgun Bลeki Kyลซsuibu Honbu). Originally set up under the Kempeitai military police of the Empire of Japan, Unit 731 was taken over and commanded until the end of the war by General Shirล Ishii, a combat medic officer in the Kwantung Army. The facility itself was built in 1935 as a replacement for the Zhongma Fortress, and to expand the capabilities for Ishii and his team. The program received generous support from the Japanese government up to the end of the war in 1945.

Unit 731 and the other Units of the "Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department" were biological weapon production, testing, deployment and storage facilities. They routinely tested on human beings (who were referred to internally as "logs"). Additionally, the biological weapons were tested in the field on cities and towns in China. Estimates of those killed by Unit 731 and its related programs range up to half a million people.

The researchers involved in Unit 731 were secretly given immunity by the U.S. in exchange for the data they gathered through human experimentation. Other researchers that the Soviet forces managed to arrest first were tried at the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials in 1949. The Americans did not try the researchers so that the information and experience gained in bio-weapons could be co-opted into the U.S. biological warfare program, much as they had done with German researchers in Operation Paperclip. On 6 May 1947, Douglas MacArthur, as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, wrote to Washington that "additional data, possibly some statements from Ishii, can probably be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as 'War Crimes' evidence". Victim accounts were then largely ignored or dismissed in the West as communist propaganda.

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๐Ÿ”— Soviet Pilot Escapes from POW Camp by Stealing a German Bomber and Flying Home

๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— Aviation ๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Military history ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Military aviation ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Military biography ๐Ÿ”— Aviation/aerospace biography project ๐Ÿ”— Military history/World War II ๐Ÿ”— Russia/Russian, Soviet, and CIS military history ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Russian, Soviet and CIS military history ๐Ÿ”— Russia/history of Russia ๐Ÿ”— Aviation/Soviet aviation

Mikhail Petrovich Devyatayev (Russian: ะœะธั…ะฐะธะป ะŸะตั‚ั€ะพะฒะธั‡ ะ”ะตะฒัั‚ะฐะตะฒ; Moksha/Erzya: ะœะธั…ะฐะธะป ะŸะตั‚ั€ะพะฒะธั‡ ะ”ะตะฒัั‚ะฐะตะฒ; 8 July 1917 โ€“ 24 November 2002) was a Soviet fighter pilot known for his incredible escape from a Nazi concentration camp on the island of Usedom, in the Baltic Sea.

๐Ÿ”— Subutai โ€“ Primary military strategist of Genghis Khan

๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Military history ๐Ÿ”— China ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Military biography ๐Ÿ”— Central Asia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/Russian, Soviet, and CIS military history ๐Ÿ”— Russia/history of Russia ๐Ÿ”— Mongols ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Medieval warfare

Subutai (Classical Mongolian: Sรผbรผgรคtรคi or Sรผbรผ'รคtรคi; Tuvan: ะกาฏะฑัะดัะน, [sybษ›หˆdษ›j]; Modern Mongolian: ะกาฏะฑััะดัะน, Sรผbeedei. [sสŠbeหหˆdษ›]; Chinese: ้€Ÿไธๅฐ 1175โ€“1248) was an Uriankhai general, and the primary military strategist of Genghis Khan and ร–gedei Khan. He directed more than 20 campaigns in which he conquered 32 nations and won 65 pitched battles, during which he conquered or overran more territory than any other commander in history. He gained victory by means of imaginative and sophisticated strategies and routinely coordinated movements of armies that were hundreds of kilometers away from each other. He is also remembered for devising the campaign that destroyed the armies of Hungary and Poland within two days of each other, by forces over 500 kilometers apart.

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๐Ÿ”— Stalin's Poetry

๐Ÿ”— Soviet Union ๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/language and literature of Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/history of Russia ๐Ÿ”— Georgia (country)

Before he became a Bolshevik revolutionary and the leader of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin was a promising poet.

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๐Ÿ”— Kyshtym Disaster

๐Ÿ”— Soviet Union ๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/technology and engineering in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Environment ๐Ÿ”— Disaster management ๐Ÿ”— Energy ๐Ÿ”— Russia/history of Russia ๐Ÿ”— Science Policy

The Kyshtym disaster, sometimes referred to as the Mayak disaster or Ozyorsk disaster in newer sources, was a radioactive contamination accident that occurred on 29 September 1957 at Mayak, a plutonium production site for nuclear weapons and nuclear fuel reprocessing plant located in the closed city of Chelyabinsk-40 (now Ozyorsk) in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union.

The disaster was the second worst nuclear incident (by radioactivity released) after the Chernobyl disaster. It measured as a Level 6 disaster on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES), making it the third highest on the INES (which ranks by population impact), behind Chernobyl (evacuated 335,000 people) and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (evacuated 154,000 people) which are both Level 7 on the INES. At least twenty-two villages were exposed to radiation from the Kyshtym disaster, with a total population of around 10,000 people evacuated. Some were evacuated after a week, but it took almost two years for evacuations to occur at other sites.

The disaster spread hot particles over more than 52,000 square kilometres (20,000ย sqย mi), where at least 270,000 people lived. Since Chelyabinsk-40 (later renamed Chelyabinsk-65 until 1994) was not marked on maps, the disaster was named after Kyshtym, the nearest known town.

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๐Ÿ”— Fabergรฉ Egg

๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/technology and engineering in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/history of Russia ๐Ÿ”— Gemology and Jewelry ๐Ÿ”— Russia/visual arts in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Gemology and Jewelry/Jewelry subpage

A Fabergรฉ egg (Russian: ัะนั†ะพ ะคะฐะฑะตั€ะถะตฬ, romanized:ย yaytso Faberzhe) is a jewelled egg created by the jewellery firm House of Fabergรฉ, in Saint Petersburg, Russia. As many as 69 were created, of which 57 survive today. Virtually all were manufactured under the supervision of Peter Carl Fabergรฉ between 1885 and 1917. The most famous are his 52 "Imperial" eggs, 46 of which survive, made for the Russian Tsars Alexander III and Nicholas II as Easter gifts for their wives and mothers. Fabergรฉ eggs are worth millions of dollars and have become symbols of opulence.

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