Topic: Energy

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๐Ÿ”— Phoebus Cartel

๐Ÿ”— Technology ๐Ÿ”— Business ๐Ÿ”— Electronics ๐Ÿ”— Energy ๐Ÿ”— Home Living

The Phoebus cartel existed to control the manufacture and sale of incandescent light bulbs. They appropriated market territories and fixed the useful life of such bulbs. Corporations based in Europe and America founded the cartel on January 15, 1925 in Geneva. They had intended the cartel to last for thirty years (1925 to 1955). The cartel ceased operations in 1939 owing to the outbreak of World War II. The cartel included manufacturers Osram, General Electric, Associated Electrical Industries, and Philips, among others.

The Phoebus cartel created a notable landmark in the history of the global economy because it engaged in large-scale planned obsolescence to generate repeated sales and maximize profit. It also reduced competition in the light bulb industry for almost fifteen years. Critics accused the cartel of preventing technological advances that would produce longer-lasting light bulbs. Phoebus based itself in Switzerland. The corporation named itself Phล“bus S.A. Compagnie Industrielle pour le Dรฉveloppement de l'ร‰clairage (French for "Phoebus, Inc. Industrial Company for the Development of Lighting").

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๐Ÿ”— 2000-Watt Society

๐Ÿ”— Climate change ๐Ÿ”— Environment ๐Ÿ”— Switzerland ๐Ÿ”— Urban studies and planning ๐Ÿ”— Energy

The 2000-watt society is an environmental vision, first introduced in 1998 by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zรผrich (ETH Zurich), which pictures the average First World citizen reducing their overall average primary energy usage rate to no more than 2,000 watts (i.e. 2 kWh per hour or 48 kWh per day) by the year 2050, without lowering their standard of living.

The concept addresses not only personal or household energy use, but the total for the whole society, including embodied energy, divided by the population.

Two thousand watts is approximately the current world average rate of total primary energy use. This compared, in 2008, to averages of around 6,000 watts in western Europe, 12,000 watts in the United States, 1,500 watts in China, 1,000 watts in India, 500 watts in South Africa and only 300 watts in Bangladesh. Switzerland itself, then using an average of around 5,000 watts, was last a 2000-watt society in the 1960s.

It is further envisaged that the use of carbon-based fuels would be ultimately cut to no more than 500 watts per person within 50 to 100 years.

The vision was developed in response to concerns about climate change, energy security, and the future availability of energy supplies. It is supported by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the Association of Swiss Architects and Engineers, and other bodies.

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๐Ÿ”— Black Start

๐Ÿ”— Energy

A black start is the process of restoring an electric power station or a part of an electric grid to operation without relying on the external electric power transmission network to recover from a total or partial shutdown.

Normally, the electric power used within the plant is provided from the station's own generators. If all of the plant's main generators are shut down, station service power is provided by drawing power from the grid through the plant's transmission line. However, during a wide-area outage, off-site power from the grid is not available. In the absence of grid power, a so-called black start needs to be performed to bootstrap the power grid into operation.

To provide a black start, some power stations have small diesel generators, normally called the black start diesel generator (BSDG), which can be used to start larger generators (of several megawatts capacity), which in turn can be used to start the main power station generators. Generating plants using steam turbines require station service power of up to 10% of their capacity for boiler feedwater pumps, boiler forced-draft combustion air blowers, and for fuel preparation. It is uneconomical to provide such a large standby capacity at each station, so black-start power must be provided over designated tie lines from another station. Often hydroelectric power plants are designated as the black-start sources to restore network interconnections. A hydroelectric station needs very little initial power for starting purposes (just enough to open the intake gates and provide excitation current to the generator field coils), and can put a large block of power on line very quickly to allow start-up of fossil-fuel or nuclear stations. Certain types of combustion turbine can be configured for black start, providing another option in places without suitable hydroelectric plants. In 2017, a utility in Southern California successfully demonstrated the use of a battery-based energy-storage system to provide a black start, firing up a combined-cycle gas turbine from an idle state.

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๐Ÿ”— Oil Pipeline Pigs

๐Ÿ”— Technology ๐Ÿ”— Energy

In pipeline transportation, pigging is the practice of using devices known as pigs or scrapers to perform various maintenance operations. This is done without stopping the flow of the product in the pipeline. These devices are known as pigs because they scrape or clean just like a normal pig.

These operations include but are not limited to cleaning and inspecting the pipeline. This is accomplished by inserting the pig into a "pig launcher" (or "launching station")ย โ€” an oversized section in the pipeline, reducing to the normal diameter. The launching station is then closed and the pressure-driven flow of the product in the pipeline is used to push the pig along down the pipe until it reaches the receiving trapย โ€” the "pig catcher" (or "receiving station").

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๐Ÿ”— Gravitation water vortex power plant

๐Ÿ”— Energy

The gravitation water vortex power plant is a type of micro hydro vortex turbine system which is capable of converting energy in a moving fluid to rotational energy using a low hydraulic head of 0.7โ€“3 metres (2ย ft 4ย inโ€“9ย ft 10ย in). The technology is based on a round basin with a central drain. Above the drain the water forms a stable line vortex which drives a water turbine.

It was first patented by Greek-Australian Lawyer & Inventor Paul Kouris in 1996, who was searching for a way to harness the power inherent in a vortex.

Later, Austrian Inventor Franz Zotlรถterer created a similar turbine while attempting to find a way to aerate water without an external power source.

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๐Ÿ”— Duck Curve

๐Ÿ”— Energy

In utility-scale electricity generation, the duck curve is a graph of power production over the course of a day that shows the timing imbalance between peak demand and renewable energy production. The term was coined in 2012 by the California Independent System Operator.

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๐Ÿ”— Kardashev Scale

๐Ÿ”— Technology ๐Ÿ”— Environment ๐Ÿ”— Science Fiction ๐Ÿ”— Astronomy ๐Ÿ”— Transhumanism ๐Ÿ”— Futures studies ๐Ÿ”— Energy

The Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement based on the amount of energy they are able to use. The measure was proposed by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Kardashev in 1964. The scale has three designated categories:

  • A Typeย I civilization, also called a planetary civilizationโ€”can use and store all of the energy available on its planet.
  • A Typeย II civilization, also called a stellar civilizationโ€”can use and control energy at the scale of its stellar system.
  • A Typeย III civilization, also called a galactic civilizationโ€”can control energy at the scale of its entire host galaxy.

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๐Ÿ”— Long-term nuclear waste warning messages

๐Ÿ”— Linguistics ๐Ÿ”— Energy ๐Ÿ”— Linguistics/Philosophy of language

Long-term nuclear waste warning messages are intended to deter human intrusion at nuclear waste repositories in the far future, within or above the order of magnitude of 10,000 years. Nuclear semiotics is an interdisciplinary field of research, first done by the American Human Interference Task Force in 1981.

A 1993 report from Sandia National Laboratories recommended that such messages be constructed at several levels of complexity. They suggested that the sites should include foreboding physical features which would immediately convey to future visitors that the site was both man-made and dangerous, as well as providing pictographic information attempting to convey some details of the danger, and written explanations for those able to read it.

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๐Ÿ”— Oil futures drunk-trading incident

๐Ÿ”— Economics ๐Ÿ”— London ๐Ÿ”— Energy

The oil futures drunk-trading incident was an incident in which Stephen Perkins, an employee of London-based PVM Oil Futures, traded 7ย million barrels (1.1ย million cubic metres) of oil, worth approximately US$520 million (ยฃ340 million) in a two-and-half-hour period in the early morning of 30 June 2009 while drunk. These unauthorised trades caused the price of Brent Crude oil to rise by over $1.50 a barrel (equivalent to $1.79 in 2019) within a short period of time, a trend generally associated with major geopolitical events, before dropping rapidly. As a result of the trading, PVM Oil Futures suffered losses of almost $10 million and Perkins was dismissed, later being banned from trading by the Financial Services Authority (FSA).

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๐Ÿ”— SkySails

๐Ÿ”— Companies ๐Ÿ”— Germany ๐Ÿ”— Transport ๐Ÿ”— Energy ๐Ÿ”— Transport/Maritime ๐Ÿ”— Ships

SkySails GmbH & Co. KG is a Hamburg-based company that sells kite rigs to propel cargo ships, large yachts and fishing vessels by wind energy. Ships are pulled by an automatically-controlled foil kite of some hundreds of square meters. For multiple reasons, they give many times the thrust per unit area of conventional mast-mounted sails.

The systems save fuel, and reduce carbon emissions and shipping costs, but have not been widely adopted.

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