Topic: Lebanon

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๐Ÿ”— Druze

๐Ÿ”— Religion ๐Ÿ”— Islam ๐Ÿ”— Anthropology ๐Ÿ”— Syria ๐Ÿ”— Sociology ๐Ÿ”— Ethnic groups ๐Ÿ”— Arab world ๐Ÿ”— Israel ๐Ÿ”— Palestine ๐Ÿ”— Islam/Shi'a Islam ๐Ÿ”— Lebanon

The Druze (; Arabic: ุฏูŽุฑู’ุฒููŠูŒู‘, darzฤซ or Arabic: ุฏูุฑู’ุฒููŠูŒู‘ durzฤซ, pl. ุฏูุฑููˆุฒูŒ, durลซz), known to adherents as al-Muwaแธฅแธฅidลซn (Monotheists) or Muwaแธฅแธฅidลซn (unitarians), are an Arab and Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group from Western Asia who adhere to the Druze faith, an Abrahamic, monotheistic, syncretic, and ethnic religion whose main tenets are the unity of God and the belief in reincarnation and the eternity of the soul. Adherents of the Druze religion call themselves simply "the Monotheists" (al-Muwaแธฅแธฅidลซn). Most Druze religious practices are kept secret. The Druze do not permit outsiders to convert to their religion. Marriage outside the Druze faith is rare and strongly discouraged.

The Epistles of Wisdom is the foundational and central text of the Druze faith. The Druze faith incorporates elements of Isma'ilism, Christianity, Gnosticism, Neoplatonism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Pythagoreanism, and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology based on an esoteric interpretation of scripture, which emphasizes the role of the mind and truthfulness. Druze believe in theophany and reincarnation. Druze believe that at the end of the cycle of rebirth, which is achieved through successive reincarnations, the soul is united with the Cosmic Mind (al-สปaql al-kullฤซ).

The Druze have a special reverence for Shuaib, who they believe is the same person as the biblical Jethro. The Druze believe that Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad, and Isma'il ibn Ja'far were prophets. Druze tradition also honors and reveres Salman the Persian, al-Khidr (who they identify as Elijah, reborn as John the Baptist and Saint George), Job, Luke the Evangelist, and others as "mentors" and "prophets".

Even though the faith originally developed out of Isma'ilism, the Druze are not Muslims. The Druze faith is one of the major religious groups in the Levant, with between 800,000 and a million adherents. They are found primarily in Lebanon, Syria, and Israel, with small communities in Jordan. They make up 5.5% of the population of Lebanon, 3% of Syria and 1.6% of Israel. The oldest and most densely-populated Druze communities exist in Mount Lebanon and in the south of Syria around Jabal al-Druze (literally the "Mountain of the Druze").

The Druze community played a critically important role in shaping the history of the Levant, where it continues to play a significant political role. As a religious minority in every country in which they are found, they have frequently experienced persecution by different Muslim regimes, including contemporary Islamic extremism.

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  • "Druze" | 2023-09-04 | 22 Upvotes 2 Comments

๐Ÿ”— Aramaic original New Testament theory

๐Ÿ”— Iran ๐Ÿ”— Ancient Near East ๐Ÿ”— Assyria ๐Ÿ”— Bible ๐Ÿ”— Syria ๐Ÿ”— Alternative Views ๐Ÿ”— Judaism ๐Ÿ”— Iraq ๐Ÿ”— Christianity ๐Ÿ”— Palestine ๐Ÿ”— Endangered languages ๐Ÿ”— Christianity/Jesus ๐Ÿ”— Lebanon ๐Ÿ”— Christianity/Oriental Orthodoxy ๐Ÿ”— Christianity/Syriac Christianity

The Aramaic original New Testament theory is the belief that the Christian New Testament was originally written in Aramaic.

There are several versions of the New Testament in Aramaic languages:

  1. the Vetus Syra (Old Syriac), a translation from Greek into early Classical Syriac, containing mostโ€”but not allโ€”of the text of the 4 Gospels, and represented in the Curetonian Gospels and the Sinaitic Palimpsest
  2. the Christian Palestinian Aramaic Lectionary fragments represented in such manuscripts as Codex Climaci Rescriptus, Codex Sinaiticus Rescriptus, and later lectionary codices (Vatican sir. 19 [A]; St Catherineโ€™s Monastery B, C, D)
  3. the Classical Syriac Peshitta, a rendering in Aramaic of the Hebrew (and some Aramaic, e.g. in Daniel and Ezra) Old Testament, plus the New Testament purportedly in its original Aramaic, and still the standard in most Syriac churches
  4. the Harklean, a strictly literal translation by Thomas of Harqel into Classical Syriac from Greek
  5. the Assyrian Modern Version, a new translation into Assyrian Neo-Aramaic from the Greek published in 1997 and mainly in use among Protestants
  6. and a number of other scattered versions in various dialects

The traditional New Testament of the Peshitta has 22 books, lacking the Second Epistle of John, the Third Epistle of John, the Second Epistle of Peter, the Epistle of Jude and the Book of Revelation, which are books of the Antilegomena. Closure of the Church of the East's New Testament Canon occurred before the 'Western Five' books could be incorporated. Its Gospels text also lacks the verses known as Jesus and the woman taken in adultery (John 7:53โ€“8:11) and Luke 22:17โ€“18, but does have the 'long ending of Mark.'

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