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๐Ÿ”— Epiousios

๐Ÿ”— Greece ๐Ÿ”— Christianity ๐Ÿ”— Christianity/Eastern Orthodoxy

Epiousios (แผฯ€ฮนฮฟฯฯƒฮนฮฟฯ‚) is a Greek adjective used in the Lord's Prayer verse "ฮคแฝธฮฝ แผ„ฯฯ„ฮฟฮฝ แผกฮผแฟถฮฝ ฯ„แฝธฮฝ แผฯ€ฮนฮฟฯฯƒฮนฮฟฮฝ ฮดแฝธฯ‚ แผกฮผแฟ–ฮฝ ฯƒฮฎฮผฮตฯฮฟฮฝ" 'Give us today our epiousion bread'. Because the word is used nowhere else, its meaning is unclear. It is traditionally translated as "daily", but most modern scholars reject that interpretation.

Since it is a Koine Greek dis legomenon found only in the New Testament passages Matthew 6:11 and Luke 11:3, its interpretation relies upon morphological analysis and context. The traditional and most common English translation is daily, although most scholars today reject this in part because all other New Testament passages with the translation "daily" include the word hemera (แผกฮผฮญฯแพฑ, 'day').

The difficulty in understanding epiousios goes at least as far back as AD 382. At that time, St. Jerome was commissioned by Pope Damasus I to renew and consolidate the various collections of biblical texts in the Vetus Latina ("Old Latin") then in use by the Church. Jerome accomplished this by going back to the original Greek of the New Testament and translating it into Latin; his translation came to be known as the Vulgate. In the identical contexts of Matthew and Lukeโ€”that is, reporting the Lord's Prayerโ€”Jerome translated epiousios in two different ways: by morphological analysis as 'supersubstantial' (supersubstantialem) in Matthew 6:11, but retaining 'daily' (quotidianum) in Luke 11:3.

The modern Catholic Catechism holds that there are several ways of understanding epiousios, including the traditional 'daily', but most literally as 'supersubstantial' or 'superessential', based on its morphological components. Alternative theories are thatโ€”aside from the etymology of ousia, meaning 'substance'โ€”it may be derived from either of the verbs einai (ฮตแผถฮฝฮฑฮน), meaning "to be", or ienai (แผฐฮญฮฝฮฑฮน), meaning both "to come" and "to go".:172

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๐Ÿ”— Gรถdel's ontological proof

๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Logic ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Contemporary philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Philosophy of religion ๐Ÿ”— Christianity ๐Ÿ”— Christianity/theology ๐Ÿ”— Military history/European military history

Gรถdel's ontological proof is a formal argument by the mathematician Kurt Gรถdel (1906โ€“1978) for the existence of God. The argument is in a line of development that goes back to Anselm of Canterbury (1033โ€“1109). St. Anselm's ontological argument, in its most succinct form, is as follows: "God, by definition, is that for which no greater can be conceived. God exists in the understanding. If God exists in the understanding, we could imagine Him to be greater by existing in reality. Therefore, God must exist." A more elaborate version was given by Gottfried Leibniz (1646โ€“1716); this is the version that Gรถdel studied and attempted to clarify with his ontological argument.

Gรถdel left a fourteen-point outline of his philosophical beliefs in his papers. Points relevant to the ontological proof include

4. There are other worlds and rational beings of a different and higher kind.
5. The world in which we live is not the only one in which we shall live or have lived.
13. There is a scientific (exact) philosophy and theology, which deals with concepts of the highest abstractness; and this is also most highly fruitful for science.
14. Religions are, for the most part, badโ€”but religion is not.

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๐Ÿ”— Door to Hell

๐Ÿ”— Christianity ๐Ÿ”— Mythology

The gates of hell are various places on the surface of the world that have acquired a legendary reputation for being entrances to the underworld. Often they are found in regions of unusual geological activity, particularly volcanic areas, or sometimes at lakes, caves, or mountains.

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๐Ÿ”— Sator Square

๐Ÿ”— Religion ๐Ÿ”— Classical Greece and Rome ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages/History ๐Ÿ”— Cryptography ๐Ÿ”— Cryptography/Computer science ๐Ÿ”— Latin ๐Ÿ”— Christianity ๐Ÿ”— Jewish history ๐Ÿ”— Occult ๐Ÿ”— Mysticism

The Sator Square (or Rotas Square) is a word square containing a five-word Latin palindrome. The earliest form has ROTAS as the top line, but in time the version with SATOR on the top line became dominant. It is a 5X5 square made up of five 5-letter words, thus consisting of 25 letters in total. These 25 letters are all derived from 8 Latin letters: 5 consonants (S, T, R, P, N) and 3 vowels (A, E, O).

In particular, this is a square 2D palindrome, which is when a square text admits four symmetries: identity, two diagonal reflections, and 180 degree rotation. As can be seen, the text may be read top-to-bottom, bottom-to-top, left-to-right, or right-to-left; and it may be rotated 180 degrees and still be read in all those ways.

The Sator Square is the earliest dateable 2D palindrome. It was found in the ruins of Pompeii, at Herculaneum, a city buried in the ash of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. It consists of a sentence written in Latin: "Sator Arepo Tenet Opera Rotas." Its translation has been the subject of speculation with no clear consensus; see below for details.

Other 2D Palindrome examples may be found carved on stone tablets or pressed into clay before being fired.

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๐Ÿ”— Mandaeism

๐Ÿ”— Religion ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Classical Greece and Rome ๐Ÿ”— Iraq ๐Ÿ”— Christianity

Mandaeism or Mandaeanism (Arabic: ู…ูŽู†ู’ุฏูŽุงุฆููŠูŽู‘ุฉโ€Ž, Mandฤสพฤซyah), also known as Sabaeanism (Arabic: ุตูŽุงุจูุฆููŠูŽู‘ุฉโ€Ž, แนขฤbiสพฤซyah), is a monotheistic and gnostic religion with a strongly dualistic cosmology. Its adherents, the Mandaeans, revere Adam, Abel, Seth, Enos, Noah, Shem, Aram, and especially John the Baptist. The Mandaeans have been counted among the Semites and speak a dialect of Eastern Aramaic known as Mandaic. The name 'Mandaean' is said to come from the Aramaic manda meaning "knowledge", as does Greek gnosis. Within the Middle East, but outside of their community, the Mandaeans are more commonly known as the แนขubba (singular: แนขubbฤซ) or Sabians. The term แนขubba is derived from the Aramaic root related to baptism, the neo-Mandaic is แนขabi. In Islam, the "Sabians" (Arabic: ุงู„ุตูŽู‘ุงุจูุฆููˆู†โ€Ž, aแนฃ-แนขฤbiสพลซn) are described several times in the Quran as People of the Book, alongside Jews and Christians. Occasionally, Mandaeans are called "Christians of Saint John".

According to most scholars, Mandaeaism originated sometime in the first three centuries AD, in either southwestern Mesopotamia or the Syro-Palestinian area. However, some scholars take the view that Mandaeanism is older and dates from pre-Christian times.

The religion has been practised primarily around the lower Karun, Euphrates and Tigris and the rivers that surround the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, part of southern Iraq and Khuzestan Province in Iran. There are thought to be between 60,000 and 70,000 Mandaeans worldwide. Until the Iraq War, almost all of them lived in Iraq. Many Mandaean Iraqis have since fled their country because of the turmoil created by the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent occupation by U.S. armed forces, and the related rise in sectarian violence by Muslim extremists. By 2007, the population of Mandaeans in Iraq had fallen to approximately 5,000.

The Mandaeans have remained separate and intensely private. Reports of them and of their religion have come primarily from outsiders: particularly from Julius Heinrich Petermann, an Orientalist as well as from Nicolas Siouffi, a Syrian Christian who was the French vice-consul in Mosul in 1887, and British cultural anthropologist Lady E. S. Drower. There is an early if highly prejudiced account by the French traveller Jean-Baptiste Tavernier from the 1650s.

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๐Ÿ”— Freeman Dyson Has Died

๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— Mathematics ๐Ÿ”— Physics ๐Ÿ”— Biography/science and academia ๐Ÿ”— Robotics ๐Ÿ”— United Kingdom ๐Ÿ”— Physics/Biographies ๐Ÿ”— Christianity

Freeman John Dyson (15 December 1923ย โ€“ 28 February 2020) was an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician known for his work in quantum electrodynamics, solid-state physics, astronomy and nuclear engineering. He was professor emeritus in the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, a member of the Board of Visitors of Ralston College and a member of the Board of Sponsors of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

Dyson originated several concepts that bear his name, such as Dyson's transform, a fundamental technique in additive number theory, which he developed as part of his proof of Mann's theorem; the Dyson tree, a hypothetical genetically-engineered plant capable of growing in a comet; the Dyson series, a perturbative series where each term is represented by Feynman diagrams; the Dyson sphere, a thought experiment that attempts to explain how a space-faring civilization would meet its energy requirements with a hypothetical megastructure that completely encompasses a star and captures a large percentage of its power output; and Dyson's eternal intelligence, a means by which an immortal society of intelligent beings in an open universe could escape the prospect of the heat death of the universe by extending subjective time to infinity while expending only a finite amount of energy.

Dyson believed global warming is caused merely by increased carbon dioxide but that some of the effects of this are favourable and not taken into account by climate scientists, such as increased agricultural yield. He was skeptical about the simulation models used to predict climate change, arguing that political efforts to reduce causes of climate change distract from other global problems that should take priority. He also signed the World Climate Declaration that there "is no Climate Emergency".

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๐Ÿ”— William of Rubruck

๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— France ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages/History ๐Ÿ”— Biography/arts and entertainment ๐Ÿ”— Christianity ๐Ÿ”— Catholicism ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages/Crusades ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Crusades ๐Ÿ”— Belgium ๐Ÿ”— Christianity/Christianity in China

William of Rubruck (Dutch: Willem van Rubroeck, Latin: Gulielmus de Rubruquis; fl.โ€‰1248โ€“1255) was a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer.

He is best known for his travels to various parts of the Middle East and Central Asia in the 13th century, including the Mongol Empire. His account of his travels is one of the masterpieces of medieval travel literature, comparable to those of Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta.

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๐Ÿ”— First Council of Nicaea

๐Ÿ”— Greece ๐Ÿ”— Guild of Copy Editors ๐Ÿ”— Turkey ๐Ÿ”— Christianity ๐Ÿ”— Catholicism ๐Ÿ”— Christianity/theology ๐Ÿ”— Greece/Byzantine world ๐Ÿ”— Christianity/Eastern Orthodoxy ๐Ÿ”— Christianity/Oriental Orthodoxy ๐Ÿ”— Christianity/Syriac Christianity ๐Ÿ”— Christianity/Christian history

The First Council of Nicaea ( ny-SEE-ษ™; Ancient Greek: ฮฃฯฮฝฮฟฮดฮฟฯ‚ ฯ„แฟ†ฯ‚ ฮฮนฮบฮฑฮฏฮฑฯ‚, romanized:ย Sรฝnodos tรชs Nikaรญas) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now ฤฐznik, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I. The Council of Nicaea met from May until the end of July 325.

This ecumenical council was the first of many efforts to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all Christendom. Hosius of Corduba may have presided over its deliberations. Its main accomplishments were settlement of the Christological issue of the divine nature of God the Son and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Nicene Creed, mandating uniform observance of the date of Easter, and promulgation of early canon law.

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๐Ÿ”— Sir Douglas Nicholls

๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— Australia ๐Ÿ”— Biography/politics and government ๐Ÿ”— Biography/sports and games ๐Ÿ”— Christianity ๐Ÿ”— Boxing ๐Ÿ”— Australia/Australian rules football

Sir Douglas Ralph Nicholls, (9 December 1906 โ€“ 4 June 1988) was a prominent Aboriginal Australian from the Yorta Yorta people. He was a professional athlete, Churches of Christ pastor and church planter, ceremonial officer and a pioneering campaigner for reconciliation.

Nicholls was the first Aboriginal Australian to be knighted when he was appointed Knight Bachelor in 1972 (he was subsequently appointed a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order in 1977). He was also the first โ€” and to date the only โ€” Indigenous Australian to be appointed to vice-regal office, serving as Governor of South Australia from 1 December 1976 until his resignation on 30 April 1977 due to poor health.

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