Topic: Catholicism

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πŸ”— Distributism

πŸ”— Economics πŸ”— Philosophy πŸ”— Politics πŸ”— Philosophy/Social and political philosophy πŸ”— Philosophy/Philosophy of religion πŸ”— Cooperatives πŸ”— Catholicism

Distributism is an economic theory asserting that the world's productive assets should be widely owned rather than concentrated.

Developed in Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, distributism was based upon the principles of Catholic social teaching, especially the teachings of Pope Leo XIII in his encyclical Rerum novarum (1891) and Pope Pius XI in Quadragesimo anno (1931). It views both capitalism and socialism as equally flawed and exploitative, and it favors economic mechanisms such as cooperatives and member-owned mutual organizations as well as small businesses, and large-scale antitrust regulations.

Some Christian democratic political parties have advocated distributism in their economic policies.

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πŸ”— William of Rubruck

πŸ”— Biography πŸ”— France πŸ”— Middle Ages πŸ”— Middle Ages/History πŸ”— Biography/arts and entertainment πŸ”— Christianity πŸ”— Catholicism πŸ”— Middle Ages/Crusades πŸ”— Military history/Crusades πŸ”— Belgium πŸ”— Christianity/Christianity in China

William of Rubruck (Dutch: Willem van Rubroeck, Latin: Gulielmus de Rubruquis; fl. 1248–1255) was a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer.

He is best known for his travels to various parts of the Middle East and Central Asia in the 13th century, including the Mongol Empire. His account of his travels is one of the masterpieces of medieval travel literature, comparable to those of Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta.

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πŸ”— First Council of Nicaea

πŸ”— Greece πŸ”— Guild of Copy Editors πŸ”— Turkey πŸ”— Christianity πŸ”— Catholicism πŸ”— Christianity/theology πŸ”— Greece/Byzantine world πŸ”— Christianity/Eastern Orthodoxy πŸ”— Christianity/Oriental Orthodoxy πŸ”— Christianity/Syriac Christianity πŸ”— Christianity/Christian history

The First Council of Nicaea ( ny-SEE-Ι™; Ancient Greek: Σύνοδος Ο„αΏ†Ο‚ Νικαίας, romanized:Β SΓ½nodos tΓͺs NikaΓ­as) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now Δ°znik, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I. The Council of Nicaea met from May until the end of July 325.

This ecumenical council was the first of many efforts to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all Christendom. Hosius of Corduba may have presided over its deliberations. Its main accomplishments were settlement of the Christological issue of the divine nature of God the Son and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Nicene Creed, mandating uniform observance of the date of Easter, and promulgation of early canon law.

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πŸ”— Beauvais Cathedral

πŸ”— France πŸ”— Architecture πŸ”— Catholicism

The Cathedral of Saint Peter of Beauvais (French: CathΓ©drale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais) is a Roman Catholic church in the northern town of Beauvais, Oise, France. It is the seat of the Bishop of Beauvais, Noyon and Senlis.

The cathedral is in the Gothic style, and consists of a 13th-century choir, with an apse and seven polygonal apsidal chapels reached by an ambulatory, joined to a 16th-century transept.

It has the highest Gothic choir in the world: (48.50 m) under vault. From 1569 to 1573 the cathedral of Beauvais was, with its tower of 153 meters, the highest human construction of the world. Its designers had the ambition to make it the largest gothic cathedral in France ahead of Amiens. Victim of two collapses, one in the 13th century, the other in the 16th century, it remains unfinished today; only the choir and the transept have been built.

The planned nave of the cathedral was never constructed. The remnant of the previous 10th-century Romanesque cathedral, known as the Basse Ε’uvre ("Lower Work"), still occupies the intended site of the nave.

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πŸ”— Mary Kenneth Keller

πŸ”— United States πŸ”— Biography πŸ”— Computing πŸ”— Women scientists πŸ”— Biography/science and academia πŸ”— Women's History πŸ”— Chicago πŸ”— Catholicism πŸ”— United States/Iowa

Mary Kenneth Keller, B.V.M. (December 17, 1913 – January 10, 1985) was an American Roman Catholic religious sister, educator and pioneer in computer science. She and Irving C. Tang were the first two people to earn a doctorate in computer science in the United States.

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πŸ”— Kakure Kirishitan

πŸ”— Catholicism πŸ”— Japan πŸ”— Japan/Religion πŸ”— Secret Societies

Kakure kirishitan (Japanese: ιš γ‚Œγ‚­γƒͺシタン, lit. 'hidden Christians') is a modern term for a member of the Catholic Church in Japan that went underground at the start of the Edo period in the early 17th century due to Christianity's repression by the Tokugawa shogunate.

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πŸ”— Sovereign Military Order of Malta

πŸ”— Military history πŸ”— Heraldry and vexillology πŸ”— Catholicism πŸ”— Military history/Crusades πŸ”— Military history/Medieval warfare πŸ”— Countries πŸ”— Former countries πŸ”— Military history/National militaries πŸ”— Malta πŸ”— Orders, decorations, and medals

The Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), officially the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Italian: Sovrano Militare Ordine Ospedaliero di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme di Rodi e di Malta; Latin: Supremus Militaris Ordo Hospitalarius Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodiensis et Melitensis), commonly known as the Order of Malta, Malta Order or Knights of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military, chivalric and noble nature. Though it possesses no territory, the order is a sovereign entity of international law and maintains diplomatic relations with many countries.

SMOM claims continuity with the Knights Hospitaller, a chivalric order that was founded c. 1099 by the Blessed Gerard in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The order is led by an elected Prince and Grand Master. Its motto is Tuitio fidei et obsequium pauperum ('defence of the faith and assistance to the poor'). The order venerates the Virgin Mary as its patroness, under the title of Our Lady of Philermos. Its modern-day role is largely focused on providing humanitarian assistance and assisting with international humanitarian relations, for which purpose it has had permanent observer status at the United Nations General Assembly since 1994.

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πŸ”— Cluny: The Google of 1000

πŸ”— France πŸ”— Architecture πŸ”— Middle Ages πŸ”— Middle Ages/History πŸ”— Catholicism

Cluny Abbey (French:Β [klyni]; formerly also Cluni, or Clugny) is a former Benedictine monastery in Cluny, SaΓ΄ne-et-Loire, France. It was dedicated to St Peter.

The abbey was constructed in the Romanesque architectural style, with three churches built in succession from the 4th to the early 12th centuries. The earliest basilica was the world's largest church until the St. Peter's Basilica construction began in Rome.

Cluny was founded by Duke William I of Aquitaine in 910. He nominated Berno as the first abbot of Cluny, subject only to Pope Sergius III. The abbey was notable for its stricter adherence to the Rule of St. Benedict, whereby Cluny became acknowledged as the leader of western monasticism. The establishment of the Benedictine Order was a keystone to the stability of European society that was achieved in the 11th century. In 1790 during the French Revolution, the abbey was sacked and mostly destroyed, with only a small part surviving.

Starting around 1334, the Abbots of Cluny maintained a townhouse in Paris known as the HΓ΄tel de Cluny, which has been a public museum since 1843. Apart from the name, it no longer possesses anything originally connected with Cluny.

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πŸ”— Jesuit Reduction

πŸ”— Brazil πŸ”— Portugal πŸ”— Catholicism πŸ”— Indigenous peoples of the Americas πŸ”— Brazil/History of Brazil πŸ”— Spain πŸ”— South America πŸ”— South America/Paraguay

The Jesuit reductions were a type of settlement for indigenous people specifically in the Rio Grande do Sul area of Brazil, Paraguay and neighbouring Argentina in South America, established by the Jesuit Order early in the 17th century and wound up in the 18th century with the banning of the Jesuit order in several European countries. Subsequently, it has been called an experiment in "socialist theocracy" or a rare example of "benign colonialism".

In their newly acquired South American dominions, the Spanish and Portuguese Empires had adopted a strategy of gathering native populations into communities called "Indian reductions" (Spanish: reducciones de indios) and Portuguese: redução (plural reduçáes). The objectives of the reductions were to impart Christianity and European culture. Secular as well as religious authorities created "reductions".

The Jesuit reductions were Christian missions that extended successfully in an area straddling the borders of present-day Paraguay, Brazil, and Argentina (the triple frontera) amongst the GuaranΓ­ peoples. The reductions are often called collectively the RΓ­o de la Plata missions. The Jesuits attempted to create a "state within a state" in which the native peoples in the reductions, guided by the Jesuits, would remain autonomous and isolated from Spanish colonists and Spanish rule. A major factor attracting the natives to the reductions was the protection they afforded from enslavement and the forced labour of encomiendas.

Under the leadership of both the Jesuits and native caciques, the reductions achieved a high degree of autonomy within the Spanish colonial empire. With the use of native labour, the reductions became economically successful. When the incursions of Brazilian Bandeirante slave-traders threatened the existence of the reductions, Indian militias were set up, which fought effectively against the Portuguese colonists. However, directly as a result of the Suppression of the Society of Jesus in several European countries, including Spain, in 1767, the Jesuits were expelled from the GuaranΓ­ missions (and the Americas) by order of the Spanish king, Charles III. So ended the era of the Paraguayan reductions. The reasons for the expulsion related more to politics in Europe than the activities of the Jesuit missions themselves.

The Jesuit Rio de la Plata reductions reached a maximum population of 141,182 in 1732 in 30 missions in Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. The reductions of the Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos in eastern Bolivia reached a maximum population of 25,000 in 1766. Jesuit reductions in the Llanos de Moxos, also in Bolivia, reached a population of about 30,000 in 1720. In Chiquitos, the first reduction was founded in 1691 and in the Llanos de Moxos in 1682.

The Jesuit reductions have been lavishly praised as a "socialist utopia" and a "Christian communistic republic" as well as criticized for their "rigid, severe and meticulous regimentation" of the lives of the Indian people they ruled with a firm hand through GuaranΓ­ intermediaries.

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