Topic: Architecture

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๐Ÿ”— Atlantropa

๐Ÿ”— Architecture

Atlantropa, also referred to as Panropa, was a gigantic engineering and colonisation idea devised by the German architect Herman Sรถrgel in the 1920s and promoted by him until his death in 1952. Its central feature was a hydroelectric dam to be built across the Strait of Gibraltar, which would have provided enormous amounts of hydroelectricity and would have led to the lowering of the surface of the Mediterranean Sea by up to 200 metres (660ย ft), opening up large new lands for settlement, for example in the Adriatic Sea. The project proposed four additional major dams as well:

  • Across the Dardanelles to hold back the Black Sea
  • Between Sicily and Tunisia to provide a roadway and further lower the inner Mediterranean
  • On the Congo River below its Kwah River tributary to refill the Mega-Chad basin around Lake Chad providing fresh water to irrigate the Sahara and creating a shipping lane to the interior of Africa
  • Suez Canal extension and locks to maintain Red Sea connection

Sรถrgel saw his scheme, projected to take over a century, as a peaceful European-wide alternative to the Lebensraum concepts that later became one of the stated reasons for Nazi Germany's conquest of new territories. Atlantropa would provide land and food, employment, electric power, and most of all, a new vision for Europe and neighbouring Africa.

The Atlantropa movement, through its several decades, was characterised by four constants:

  • Pacifism, in its promises of using technology in a peaceful way;
  • Pan-European sentiment, seeing the project as a way to unite a war-torn Europe;
  • Eurocentric attitudes to Africa (which was to become united with Europe into "Atlantropa" or Eurafrica), and
  • Neo-colonial geopolitics, which saw the world divided into three blocsโ€”America, Asia, and Atlantropa.

Active support was limited to architects and planners from Germany and a number of other primarily northern European countries. Critics derided it for various faults, ranging from lack of any cooperation of Mediterranean countries in the planning to the impacts it would have had on the historic coastal communities left stranded inland when the sea receded. The project reached great popularity in the late 1920s to the early 1930s, and for a short period again, in the late 1940s to the early 1950s, but soon disappeared from general discourse again after Sรถrgel's death.

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๐Ÿ”— Arcosanti

๐Ÿ”— United States ๐Ÿ”— Architecture ๐Ÿ”— Urban studies and planning ๐Ÿ”— United States/Arizona

Arcosanti is a projected experimental town with a molten bronze bell casting business in Yavapai County, central Arizona, 70ย mi (110ย km) north of Phoenix, at an elevation of 3,732 feet (1,130 meters). Its arcology concept was posited by the Italian-American architect, Paolo Soleri (1919โ€“2013). He began construction in 1970, to demonstrate how urban conditions could be improved while minimizing the destructive impact on the earth. He taught and influenced generations of architects and urban designers who studied and worked with him there to build the proposed "town".

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๐Ÿ”— Shot tower

๐Ÿ”— Architecture ๐Ÿ”— Firearms ๐Ÿ”— Metalworking

A shot tower is a tower designed for the production of small diameter shot balls by freefall of molten lead, which is then caught in a water basin. The shot is primarily used for projectiles in shotguns, and also for ballast, radiation shielding and other applications where small lead balls are useful.

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๐Ÿ”— X-Seed 4000

๐Ÿ”— Architecture ๐Ÿ”— Japan ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Tokyo

The X-Seed 4000 is a visionary skyscraper for what would be, if it was built, the tallest building in the world. The idea was initially created and developed by Peter Neville. Its proposed 4-kilometre (2.5ย mi) height, 6-kilometre-wide (3.7ย mi) sea-base, and 800-floor capacity could accommodate 500,000 to 1,000,000 inhabitants. This structure would be composed of over 3,000,000 tons of pure steel.

It was designed for Tokyo, Japan by the Taisei Corporation in 1995 as a futuristic environment combining ultra-modern living and interaction with nature. Methods of transportation within the X-seed would most likely include MagLev trains.

The X-Seed 4000 "is never meant to be built," says Georges Binder, managing director of Buildings & Data, a firm which compiles data banks on buildings worldwide. "The purpose of the plan was to earn some recognition for the firm, and it worked."

Unlike conventional skyscrapers, to remain habitable the (X-Seed 4000) would be forced to actively protect its occupants from considerable internal air pressure and external air pressure gradations and weather fluctuations that its massive elevation would cause. Its design calls for the use of solar power to maintain internal environmental conditions. As the proposed site for the structure is located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, the most active volcano range in the world, the X-Seed 4000 would be subject to earthquakes and tsunamis.

A sea-based location and a Mount Fuji shape are some of this building's other major design featuresโ€”the real Mount Fuji is land-based and is 3,776 metres (12,388ย ft) high so is 224 metres (735ย ft) shorter than the X-Seed 4000.

The X-Seed 4000 is projected to be twice the height of the Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid at 2,004 metres (6,575ย ft). The Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid (proposed in 2007, also planned for Tokyo, Japan) faces most of the same problems as the X-Seed. Other projects that may be in the top five man made structures are the Ultima Tower 3,218 metres (10,558ย ft) in San Francisco, Dubai City Tower 2,400 metres (7,900ย ft) and the Bionic Tower 1,228 metres (4,029ย ft) in either Hong Kong or Shanghai.

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๐Ÿ”— Retrofuturism

๐Ÿ”— Architecture ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Aesthetics ๐Ÿ”— Science Fiction ๐Ÿ”— Visual arts ๐Ÿ”— Popular Culture ๐Ÿ”— Fashion ๐Ÿ”— Sculpture

Retrofuturism (adjective retrofuturistic or retrofuture) is a movement in the creative arts showing the influence of depictions of the future produced in an earlier era. If futurism is sometimes called a "science" bent on anticipating what will come, retrofuturism is the remembering of that anticipation. Characterized by a blend of old-fashioned "retro styles" with futuristic technology, retrofuturism explores the themes of tension between past and future, and between the alienating and empowering effects of technology. Primarily reflected in artistic creations and modified technologies that realize the imagined artifacts of its parallel reality, retrofuturism can be seen as "an animating perspective on the world". However, it has also manifested in the worlds of fashion, architecture, design, music, literature, film, and video games.

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๐Ÿ”— Tunnel of Eupalinos

๐Ÿ”— Architecture ๐Ÿ”— Greece

The Tunnel of Eupalinos or Eupalinian aqueduct (Greek: ฮ•ฯ…ฯ€ฮฑฮปฮฏฮฝฮนฮฟฮฝ ฯŒฯฯ…ฮณฮผฮฑ, romanized:ย Efpalinion orygma) is a tunnel of 1,036ย m (3,399ย ft) length running through Mount Kastro in Samos, Greece, built in the 6th century BC to serve as an aqueduct. The tunnel is the second known tunnel in history which was excavated from both ends (Ancient Greek: แผ€ฮผฯ†ฮฏฯƒฯ„ฮฟฮผฮฟฮฝ, romanized:ย amphistomon, "having two openings"), and the first with a geometry-based approach in doing so. Today it is a popular tourist attraction.

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๐Ÿ”— Gate Tower Building

๐Ÿ”— Architecture ๐Ÿ”— Japan

Gate Tower Building (ใ‚ฒใƒผใƒˆใ‚ฟใƒฏใƒผใƒ“ใƒซ, gฤ“to tawฤ biru) is a 16 floor office building in Fukushima-ku, Osaka, Japan. It is notable for the highway offramp at Umeda Exit that passes through the building.

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๐Ÿ”— Guรฉdelon Castle

๐Ÿ”— France ๐Ÿ”— Military history ๐Ÿ”— Architecture ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Fortifications ๐Ÿ”— Military history/French military history ๐Ÿ”— Archaeology ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Medieval warfare ๐Ÿ”— Metalworking ๐Ÿ”— Military history/European military history ๐Ÿ”— Woodworking

Guรฉdelon Castle (Chรขteau de Guรฉdelon) is a castle currently under construction near Treigny, France. The castle is the focus of an experimental archaeology project aimed at recreating a 13th-century castle and its environment using period technique, dress, and material.

In order to fully investigate the technology required in the past, the project is using only period construction techniques, tools, and costumes. Materials, including wood and stone, are all obtained locally. Jacques Moulin, chief architect for the project, designed the castle according to the architectural model developed during the 12th and 13th centuries by Philip II of France.

Construction started in 1997 under Michel Guyot, owner of Chรขteau de Saint-Fargeau, a castle in Saint-Fargeau 13 kilometres away. The site was chosen according to the availability of construction materials: an abandoned stone quarry, in a large forest, with a nearby pond. The site is in a rural woodland area and the nearest town is Saint-Sauveur-en-Puisaye, about 5 kilometres (3.1ย mi) to the northeast.

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๐Ÿ”— Bastion Fort

๐Ÿ”— Military history ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Military science, technology, and theory ๐Ÿ”— Architecture ๐Ÿ”— Urban studies and planning ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Fortifications ๐Ÿ”— Civil engineering ๐Ÿ”— Engineering

A bastion fort or trace italienne (a phrase improperly derived from French, literally meaning Italian outline), is a fortification in a style that evolved during the early modern period of gunpowder when the cannon came to dominate the battlefield. It was first seen in the mid-15th century in Italy. Some types, especially when combined with ravelins and other outworks, resembled the related star fort of the same era.

The design of the fort is normally a polygon with bastions at the corners of the walls. These outcroppings eliminated protected blind spots, called "dead zones", and allowed fire along the curtain from positions protected from direct fire. Many bastion forts also feature cavaliers, which are raised secondary structures based entirely inside the primary structure.

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๐Ÿ”— Panopticon

๐Ÿ”— Mass surveillance ๐Ÿ”— Architecture ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Social and political philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Law Enforcement ๐Ÿ”— Correction and Detention Facilities

The panopticon is a type of institutional building and a system of control designed by the English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham in the 18th century. The concept of the design is to allow all prisoners of an institution to be observed by a single security guard, without the inmates being able to tell whether they are being watched.

Although it is physically impossible for the single guard to observe all the inmates' cells at once, the fact that the inmates cannot know when they are being watched means that they are motivated to act as though they are being watched at all times. Thus, the inmates are effectively compelled to regulate their own behaviour. The architecture consists of a rotunda with an inspection house at its centre. From the centre the manager or staff of the institution are able to watch the inmates. Bentham conceived the basic plan as being equally applicable to hospitals, schools, sanatoriums, and asylums, but he devoted most of his efforts to developing a design for a panopticon prison. It is his prison that is now most widely meant by the term "panopticon".

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