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The Crystal Palace

Architecture London England United Kingdom Citizendium Porting Glass Kent Scouting/Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting Scouting

The Crystal Palace was a cast-iron and plate-glass structure originally built in Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. The exhibition took place from 1 May until 15 October 1851, and more than 14,000 exhibitors from around the world gathered in its 990,000 square feet (92,000 m2) exhibition space to display examples of technology developed in the Industrial Revolution. Designed by Joseph Paxton, the Great Exhibition building was 1,851 feet (564 m) long, with an interior height of 128 feet (39 m). It was three times the size of St Paul's Cathedral.

The introduction of the sheet glass method into Britain by Chance Brothers in 1832 made possible the production of large sheets of cheap but strong glass, and its use in the Crystal Palace created a structure with the greatest area of glass ever seen in a building. It astonished visitors with its clear walls and ceilings that did not require interior lights.

It has been suggested that the name of the building resulted from a piece penned by the playwright Douglas Jerrold, who in July 1850 wrote in the satirical magazine Punch about the forthcoming Great Exhibition, referring to a "palace of very crystal".

After the exhibition, the Palace was relocated to an area of South London known as Penge Common. It was rebuilt at the top of Penge Peak next to Sydenham Hill, an affluent suburb of large villas. It stood there from June 1854 until its destruction by fire in November 1936. The nearby residential area was renamed Crystal Palace after the landmark. This included the Crystal Palace Park that surrounds the site, home of the Crystal Palace National Sports Centre, which had previously been a football stadium that hosted the FA Cup Final between 1895 and 1914. Crystal Palace F.C. were founded at the site in 1905 and played at the Cup Final venue in their early years. The park still contains Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins's Crystal Palace Dinosaurs which date back to 1854.

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Wallenberg Family

Sweden Scouting

The Wallenberg family are a prominent Swedish family, Europe's pre-eminent, most powerful business family and dynasty, renowned as bankers, industrialists, politicians, bureaucrats, and diplomats.

The Wallenberg sphere's holdings employ about 600,000 people and have sales of $154 billion a year.

The Wallenberg empire consists of 16 Wallenberg Foundations, Foundation Asset Management (FAM), Investor AB, Patricia Industries and Wallenberg Investments AB.

The Wallenbergs control and are majority owners of most large Swedish industrial groups, such as world leading telecommunication multinational Ericsson, Scandinavian and Baltic bank giant Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken, one of the world's largest paper and pulp multinationals Stora Enso, Wärtsilä, world's second largest appliance maker Electrolux, one of the world's largest power, automation and robotics multinationals ABB, one of Europe's largest aerospace and arms manufacturers SAAB, SAS Group, world's largest ball-bearing company SKF, Atlas Copco, pharmaceutical multinational Astra Zeneca, Nasdaq, Inc., Husqvarna, the Stockholm football club AIK, investment company Investor AB, the Grand Group hotel, BraunAbility, Epiroc, world's largest powdered metal company Höganäs AB, IPCO, Laborie, EQT Partners, Nefab, Permobil, Piab, Sobi, Sarnova, 3 Scandinavia, Kopparfors Skogar, Hylte Bruk AB and so on.

Former holdings include among others Scania AB and Saab Automobile.

In the 1970s, the Wallenberg family businesses employed 40% of Sweden's industrial workforce and represented 40% of the total worth of the Stockholm stock market.

Wallenbergs, through the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, allocate annually SEK 2 billion to science and research, which makes the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation one of the largest private research foundations in Europe, and has, until 2020, awarded SEK 31.2 billion in grants.

The most famous of the Wallenbergs, Raoul Wallenberg, a diplomat, worked in Budapest, Hungary, during World War II to rescue Jews from the Holocaust. Between July and December 1944, he issued protective passports and housed Jews, saving tens of thousands of Jewish lives.