Topic: Sweden

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πŸ”— Sweden Solar System

πŸ”— Astronomy πŸ”— Sweden πŸ”— Solar System πŸ”— Astronomy/Solar System

The Sweden Solar System is the world's largest permanent scale model of the Solar System. The Sun is represented by the Ericsson Globe in Stockholm, the largest hemispherical building in the world. The inner planets can also be found in Stockholm but the outer planets are situated northward in other cities along the Baltic Sea. The system was started by Nils Brenning and GΓΆsta Gahm and is on the scale of 1:20 million.

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πŸ”— Wringing

πŸ”— Technology πŸ”— Sweden πŸ”— Metalworking

Gauge blocks (also known as gage blocks, Johansson gauges, slip gauges, or Jo blocks) are a system for producing precision lengths. The individual gauge block is a metal or ceramic block that has been precision ground and lapped to a specific thickness. Gauge blocks come in sets of blocks with a range of standard lengths. In use, the blocks are stacked to make up a desired length.

An important feature of gauge blocks is that they can be joined together with very little dimensional uncertainty. The blocks are joined by a sliding process called wringing, which causes their ultra-flat surfaces to cling together. A small number of gauge blocks can be used to create accurate lengths within a wide range. By using 3 blocks at a time taken from a set of 30 blocks, one may create any of the 1000 lengths from 3.000 to 3.999Β mm in 0.001Β mm steps (or .3000 to .3999 inches in 0.0001Β inch steps). Gauge blocks were invented in 1896 by Swedish machinist Carl Edvard Johansson. They are used as a reference for the calibration of measuring equipment used in machine shops, such as micrometers, sine bars, calipers, and dial indicators (when used in an inspection role). Gauge blocks are the main means of length standardization used by industry.

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πŸ”— Sweden warrantlessly wiretaps all Internet traffic crossing its borders

πŸ”— Espionage πŸ”— Military history πŸ”— Military history/Intelligence πŸ”— Sweden πŸ”— Military history/Nordic military history πŸ”— Military history/National militaries πŸ”— Military history/European military history

The National Defence Radio Establishment (Swedish: FΓΆrsvarets radioanstalt, FRA) is a Swedish government agency organised under the Ministry of Defence. The two main tasks of FRA are signals intelligence (SIGINT), and support to government authorities and state-owned companies regarding computer security.

The FRA is not allowed to initialize any surveillance on their own, and operates purely on assignment from the Government, the Government Offices, the Armed Forces, the Swedish National Police Board and Swedish Security Service (SΓ„PO). Decisions and oversight regarding information interception is provided by the Defence Intelligence Court and the Defence Intelligence Commission; additional oversight regarding protection of privacy is provided by the Swedish Data Protection Authority.

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πŸ”— Jumbo Stay

πŸ”— Aviation πŸ”— Sweden πŸ”— Travel and Tourism πŸ”— Travel and Tourism/Hotels

The Jumbo Stay (formerly named the Jumbo Hostel) is a hostel located inside a decommissioned Boeing 747-200 jetliner at Stockholm Arlanda Airport. It opened in 2009.

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πŸ”— En svensk tiger

πŸ”— Military history πŸ”— Military history/World War II πŸ”— Sweden πŸ”— Military history/Nordic military history πŸ”— Military history/European military history

En svensk tiger (Swedish:Β [Ι›n ˈsvΙ›nːsk ˈtǐːɑɛr]) was a slogan and an image that became part of a propaganda campaign in Sweden during World War II. Its goal was to prevent espionage by encouraging secrecy.

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πŸ”— Law of Jante

πŸ”— Denmark πŸ”— Sociology πŸ”— Norway πŸ”— Sweden

The Law of Jante (Danish: Janteloven) is a code of conduct known in Nordic countries that characterizes not conforming, doing things out of the ordinary, or being overtly personally ambitious as unworthy and inappropriate. The attitudes were first formulated in the form of the ten rules of Jante Law by the Dano-Norwegian author Aksel Sandemose in his satirical novel A Fugitive Crosses His Tracks (En flyktning krysser sitt spor, 1933), but the actual attitudes themselves are older. Sandemose portrays the fictional small Danish town Jante, which he modelled upon his native town NykΓΈbing Mors in the 1930s, where nobody was anonymous, which is typical of all small towns and communities.

Used generally in colloquial speech in the Nordic countries as a sociological term to denote a social attitude of disapproval towards expressions of individuality and personal success, it emphasizes adherence to the collective.

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πŸ”— Crypto AG

πŸ”— United States πŸ”— Mass surveillance πŸ”— Espionage πŸ”— Companies πŸ”— Military history πŸ”— Military history/North American military history πŸ”— Military history/United States military history πŸ”— Military history/Military science, technology, and theory πŸ”— Military history/Intelligence πŸ”— Cryptography πŸ”— Cryptography/Computer science πŸ”— Switzerland πŸ”— Military history/Cold War πŸ”— Sweden

Crypto AG was a Swiss company specialising in communications and information security. It was secretly jointly owned by the American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and West German Federal Intelligence Service (BND) from 1970 until about 1993, with the CIA continuing as sole owner until about 2018. With headquarters in Steinhausen, the company was a long-established manufacturer of encryption machines and a wide variety of cipher devices.

The company had about 230 employees, had offices in Abidjan, Abu Dhabi, Buenos Aires, Kuala Lumpur, Muscat, Selsdon and Steinhausen, and did business throughout the world. The owners of Crypto AG were unknown, supposedly even to the managers of the firm, and they held their ownership through bearer shares.

The company has been criticised for selling backdoored products to benefit the American, British and German national signals intelligence agencies, the National Security Agency (NSA), the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), and the BND, respectively. On 11 February 2020, The Washington Post, ZDF and SRF revealed that Crypto AG was secretly owned by the CIA in a highly classified partnership with West German intelligence, and the spy agencies could easily break the codes used to send encrypted messages. The operation was known first by the code name "Thesaurus" and later "Rubicon".

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πŸ”— Gustav III of Sweden's Coffee Experiment

πŸ”— Medicine πŸ”— Food and drink πŸ”— Sweden πŸ”— Food and drink/Beverages

Gustav III of Sweden's coffee experiment was a twin study ordered by the king to study the health effects of coffee. Although the authenticity of the event has been questioned, the experiment, which was conducted in the second half of the 18th century, failed to prove that coffee was a dangerous beverage.

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πŸ”— Old Tjikko, the oldest living clonal Norway Spruce

πŸ”— Plants πŸ”— Sweden

Old Tjikko is a 9,550 year-old Norway Spruce, located on FulufjΓ€llet Mountain of Dalarna province in Sweden. Old Tjikko originally gained fame as the "world's oldest tree." Old Tjikko is, however, a clonal tree that has regenerated new trunks, branches and roots over millennia rather than an individual tree of great age. Old Tjikko is recognized as the oldest living Picea abies and the third oldest known clonal tree.

The age of the tree was determined by carbon dating of genetically matched plant material collected from under the tree, as dendrochronology would cause damage. The trunk itself is estimated to be only a few hundred years old, but the plant has survived for much longer due to a process known as layering (when a branch comes in contact with the ground, it sprouts a new root), or vegetative cloning (when the trunk dies but the root system is still alive, it may sprout a new trunk).

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πŸ”— Dagen H – the day Sweden switched to driving on the right

πŸ”— Transport πŸ”— Sweden

Dagen H (H day), today usually called "HΓΆgertrafikomlΓ€ggningen" ("The right-hand traffic diversion"), was the day on 3 September 1967, in which the traffic in Sweden switched from driving on the left-hand side of the road to the right. The "H" stands for "HΓΆgertrafik", the Swedish word for "right traffic". It was by far the largest logistical event in Sweden's history.