Topic: Philosophy/Contemporary philosophy

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๐Ÿ”— Against Method

๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Philosophical literature ๐Ÿ”— Books ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Philosophy of science ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Contemporary philosophy

Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge is a 1975 book about the philosophy of science by Paul Feyerabend, in which the author argues that science is an anarchic enterprise, not a nomic (customary) one. In the context of this work, the term anarchy refers to epistemological anarchy.

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๐Ÿ”— Gรถdel's ontological proof

๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Logic ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Contemporary philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Philosophy of religion ๐Ÿ”— Christianity ๐Ÿ”— Christianity/theology ๐Ÿ”— Military history/European military history

Gรถdel's ontological proof is a formal argument by the mathematician Kurt Gรถdel (1906โ€“1978) for the existence of God. The argument is in a line of development that goes back to Anselm of Canterbury (1033โ€“1109). St. Anselm's ontological argument, in its most succinct form, is as follows: "God, by definition, is that for which no greater can be conceived. God exists in the understanding. If God exists in the understanding, we could imagine Him to be greater by existing in reality. Therefore, God must exist." A more elaborate version was given by Gottfried Leibniz (1646โ€“1716); this is the version that Gรถdel studied and attempted to clarify with his ontological argument.

Gรถdel left a fourteen-point outline of his philosophical beliefs in his papers. Points relevant to the ontological proof include

4. There are other worlds and rational beings of a different and higher kind.
5. The world in which we live is not the only one in which we shall live or have lived.
13. There is a scientific (exact) philosophy and theology, which deals with concepts of the highest abstractness; and this is also most highly fruitful for science.
14. Religions are, for the most part, badโ€”but religion is not.

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๐Ÿ”— Gรถdel's Loophole

๐Ÿ”— United States/U.S. Government ๐Ÿ”— United States ๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Logic ๐Ÿ”— Biography/science and academia ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Contemporary philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Philosophers ๐Ÿ”— United States/U.S. history

Gรถdel's Loophole is a "inner contradiction" in the Constitution of the United States which Austrian-German-American logician, mathematician, and analytic philosopher Kurt Gรถdel claimed to have discovered in 1947. The flaw would have allowed the American democracy to be legally turned into a dictatorship. Gรถdel told his friend Oskar Morgenstern about the existence of the flaw and Morgenstern told Albert Einstein about it at the time, but Morgenstern, in his recollection of the incident in 1971, never mentioned the exact problem as Gรถdel saw it. This has led to speculation about the precise nature of what has come to be called "Gรถdel's Loophole". It has been called "one of the great unsolved problems of constitutional law."

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๐Ÿ”— Stochastic Parrot

๐Ÿ”— Computer science ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Contemporary philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Philosophy of mind ๐Ÿ”— Artificial Intelligence

In machine learning, "stochastic parrot" is a term coined by Emily M. Bender in the 2021 artificial intelligence research paper "On the Dangers of Stochastic Parrots: Can Language Models Be Too Big?" by Bender, Timnit Gebru, Angelina McMillan-Major, and Margaret Mitchell. The term refers to "large language models that are impressive in their ability to generate realistic-sounding language but ultimately do not truly understand the meaning of the language they are processing."

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๐Ÿ”— The Society of the Spectacle

๐Ÿ”— France ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Philosophical literature ๐Ÿ”— Books ๐Ÿ”— Politics ๐Ÿ”— Socialism ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Social and political philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Marketing & Advertising ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Contemporary philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Continental philosophy

The Society of the Spectacle (French: La sociรฉtรฉ du spectacle) is a 1967 work of philosophy and Marxist critical theory by Guy Debord, in which the author develops and presents the concept of the Spectacle. The book is considered a seminal text for the Situationist movement. Debord published a follow-up book Comments on the Society of the Spectacle in 1988.

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๐Ÿ”— Ship of Theseus

๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Logic ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Contemporary philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Ancient philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Philosophy of mind ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Modern philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Metaphysics ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Analytic philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Folklore

In the metaphysics of identity, the ship of Theseus is a thought experiment that raises the question of whether an object that has had all of its components replaced remains fundamentally the same object. The concept is one of the oldest in Western philosophy, having been discussed by the likes of Heraclitus and Plato by ca. 500-400 BC.

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๐Ÿ”— Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

๐Ÿ”— Mathematics ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Philosophical literature ๐Ÿ”— Books ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Logic ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Contemporary philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Linguistics ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Philosophy of language ๐Ÿ”— Linguistics/Philosophy of language ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Analytic philosophy

The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (widely abbreviated and cited as TLP) is the only book-length philosophical work by the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein that was published during his lifetime. The project had a broad goal: to identify the relationship between language and reality and to define the limits of science. Wittgenstein wrote the notes for the Tractatus while he was a soldier during World War I and completed it during a military leave in the summer of 1918. It was originally published in German in 1921 as Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung (Logical-Philosophical Treatise). In 1922 it was published together with an English translation and a Latin title, which was suggested by G. E. Moore as homage to Baruch Spinoza's Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (1670).

The Tractatus is written in an austere and succinct literary style, containing almost no arguments as such, but consists of altogether 525 declarative statements, which are hierarchically numbered.

The Tractatus is recognized by philosophers as one of the most significant philosophical works of the twentieth century and was influential chiefly amongst the logical positivist philosophers of the Vienna Circle, such as Rudolf Carnap and Friedrich Waismann and Bertrand Russell's article "The Philosophy of Logical Atomism".

Wittgenstein's later works, notably the posthumously published Philosophical Investigations, criticised many of his ideas in the Tractatus. There are, however, elements to see a common thread in Wittgenstein's thinking, in spite of those criticisms of the Tractatus in later writings. Indeed, the legendary contrast between โ€˜earlyโ€™ and โ€˜lateโ€™ Wittgenstein has been countered by such scholars as Pears (1987) and Hilmy (1987). For example, a relevant, yet neglected aspect of continuity in Wittgensteinโ€™s central issues concerns โ€˜meaningโ€™ as โ€˜useโ€™. Connecting his early and later writings on โ€˜meaning as useโ€™ is his appeal to direct consequences of a term or phrase, reflected e.g. in his speaking of language as a โ€˜calculusโ€™. These passages are rather crucial to Wittgensteinโ€™s view of โ€˜meaning as useโ€™, though they have been widely neglected in scholarly literature. The centrality and importance of these passages are corroborated and augmented by renewed examination of Wittgensteinโ€™s NachlaรŸ, as is done in "From Tractatus to Later Writings and Back - New Implications from the Nachlass" (de Queiroz 2023).

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๐Ÿ”— HeLa, the oldest and most commonly used human cell line

๐Ÿ”— Viruses ๐Ÿ”— Biology ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Contemporary philosophy ๐Ÿ”— History of Science ๐Ÿ”— Molecular and Cell Biology ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Ethics ๐Ÿ”— Genetics ๐Ÿ”— Evolutionary biology ๐Ÿ”— Science Policy ๐Ÿ”— Molecular Biology/Molecular and Cell Biology

HeLa (; also Hela or hela) is an immortal cell line used in scientific research. It is the oldest and most commonly used human cell line. The line was derived from cervical cancer cells taken on February 8, 1951 from Henrietta Lacks, a patient who died of cancer on October 4, 1951. The cell line was found to be remarkably durable and prolific, which gives rise to its extensive use in scientific research.

The cells from Lacks's cancerous cervical tumor were taken without her knowledge or consent, which was common practice at the time. Cell biologist George Otto Gey found that they could be kept alive, and developed a cell line. Previously, cells cultured from other human cells would only survive for a few days. Scientists would spend more time trying to keep the cells alive than performing actual research on them. Cells from Lacks' tumor behaved differently. As was custom for Gey's lab assistant, she labeled the culture 'HeLa', the first two letters of the patient's first and last name; this became the name of the cell line.

These were the first human cells grown in a lab that were naturally "immortal", meaning that they do not die after a set number of cell divisions (i.e. cellular senescence). These cells could be used for conducting a multitude of medical experimentsโ€”if the cells died, they could simply be discarded and the experiment attempted again on fresh cells from the culture. This represented an enormous boon to medical and biological research, as previously stocks of living cells were limited and took significant effort to culture.

The stable growth of HeLa enabled a researcher at the University of Minnesota hospital to successfully grow polio virus, enabling the development of a vaccine, and by 1952, Jonas Salk developed a vaccine for polio using these cells. To test Salk's new vaccine, the cells were put into mass production in the first-ever cell production factory.

In 1953, HeLa cells were the first human cells successfully cloned and demand for the HeLa cells quickly grew in the nascent biomedical industry. Since the cells' first mass replications, they have been used by scientists in various types of investigations including disease research, gene mapping, effects of toxic substances on organisms, and radiation on humans. Additionally, HeLa cells have been used to test human sensitivity to tape, glue, cosmetics, and many other products.

Scientists have grown an estimated 50 million metricย tons of HeLa cells, and there are almost 11,000ย patents involving these cells.

The HeLa cell lines are also notorious for invading other cell cultures in laboratory settings. Some have estimated that HeLa cells have contaminated 10โ€“20% of all cell lines currently in use.

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๐Ÿ”— Problem of Time

๐Ÿ”— Physics ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Philosophy of science ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Contemporary philosophy

In theoretical physics, the problem of time is a conceptual conflict between general relativity and quantum mechanics in that quantum mechanics regards the flow of time as universal and absolute, whereas general relativity regards the flow of time as malleable and relative. This problem raises the question of what time really is in a physical sense and whether it is truly a real, distinct phenomenon. It also involves the related question of why time seems to flow in a single direction, despite the fact that no known physical laws seem to require a single direction.

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๐Ÿ”— Masterโ€“Slave Morality

๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Contemporary philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Ethics

Masterโ€“slave morality (German: Herren- und Sklavenmoral) is a central theme of Friedrich Nietzsche's works, particularly in the first essay of his book, On the Genealogy of Morality. Nietzsche argued that there were two fundamental types of morality: "master morality" and "slave morality". Master morality values pride and power, while slave morality values kindness, empathy, and sympathy. Master morality judges actions as good or bad (e.g. the classical virtues of the noble man versus the vices of the rabble), unlike slave morality, which judges by a scale of good or evil intentions (e. g. Christian virtues and vices, Kantian deontology).

For Nietzsche, a morality is inseparable from the culture which values it, meaning that each culture's language, codes, practices, narratives, and institutions are informed by the struggle between these two moral structures.

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