Topic: Japan/Business and economy

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๐Ÿ”— Poka-yoke

๐Ÿ”— Business ๐Ÿ”— Engineering ๐Ÿ”— Japan ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Science and technology ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Business and economy

Poka-yoke (ใƒใ‚ซใƒจใ‚ฑ, [poka yoke]) is a Japanese term that means "mistake-proofing" or "inadvertent error prevention". A poka-yoke is any mechanism in any process that helps an equipment operator avoid (yokeru) mistakes (poka). Its purpose is to eliminate product defects by preventing, correcting, or drawing attention to human errors as they occur. The concept was formalised, and the term adopted, by Shigeo Shingo as part of the Toyota Production System. It was originally described as baka-yoke, but as this means "fool-proofing" (or "idiot-proofing") the name was changed to the milder poka-yoke.

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๐Ÿ”— SuperH

๐Ÿ”— Video games ๐Ÿ”— Computing ๐Ÿ”— Computing/Computer hardware ๐Ÿ”— Japan ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Business and economy ๐Ÿ”— Video games/Sega

SuperH (or SH) is a 32-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Hitachi and currently produced by Renesas. It is implemented by microcontrollers and microprocessors for embedded systems.

At the time of introduction, SuperH was notable for having fixed-length 16-bit instructions in spite of its 32-bit architecture. This was a novel approach; at the time, RISC processors always used an instruction size that was the same as the internal data width, typically 32-bits. Using smaller instructions had consequences, the register file was smaller and instructions were generally two-operand format. But for the market the SuperH was aimed at, this was a small price to pay for the improved memory and processor cache efficiency.

Later versions of the design, starting with SH-5, included both 16- and 32-bit instructions, with the 16-bit versions mapping onto the 32-bit version inside the CPU. This allowed the machine code to continue using the shorter instructions to save memory, while not demanding the amount of instruction decoding logic needed if they were completely separate instructions. This concept is now known as a compressed instruction set and is also used by other companies, the most notable example being ARM for its Thumb instruction set.

As of 2015, many of the original patents for the SuperH architecture are expiring and the SH-2 CPU has been reimplemented as open source hardware under the name J2.

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๐Ÿ”— The oldest, continuously running, independent business in the world?

๐Ÿ”— Companies ๐Ÿ”— History ๐Ÿ”— Architecture ๐Ÿ”— Buddhism ๐Ÿ”— Japan ๐Ÿ”— Japan/History ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Business and economy

Kongล Gumi Co., Ltd. (ๆ ชๅผไผš็คพ้‡‘ๅ‰›็ต„, Kabushiki Gaisha Kongล Gumi) is a Japanese construction company which was the world's oldest continuously ongoing independent company, operating for over 1,400 years. In January 2006, it became a subsidiary of Takamatsu.

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๐Ÿ”— Simultaneous recruiting of new graduates

๐Ÿ”— Korea ๐Ÿ”— Business ๐Ÿ”— Japan ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Business and economy

Simultaneous recruiting of new graduates or periodic recruiting of new graduates (ๆ–ฐๅ’ไธ€ๆ‹ฌๆŽก็”จ, Shinsotsu-ikkatsu-saiyล) is the custom that companies hire new graduates all at once and employ them. This custom was unique to Japan and South Korea. A 2010 age discrimination law enforced in South Korea bans employers from discriminating against job-seekers who have not recently graduated from high school or university. Japan is now the only country practising this custom; however, in 2018, the Japan Business Federation (Keidanren) announced that its 1,600 member companies, which represent a large portion of Japan's big business companies, would no longer be required to follow the custom from 2020 onwards.

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๐Ÿ”— Renaultโ€“Nissanโ€“Mitsubishi Alliance

๐Ÿ”— Companies ๐Ÿ”— France ๐Ÿ”— Automobiles ๐Ÿ”— Japan ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Business and economy ๐Ÿ”— Japan/Car

The Renaultโ€“Nissanโ€“Mitsubishi Alliance, originally known as the Renaultโ€“Nissan Alliance, is a French-Japanese strategic alliance between the automobile manufacturers Renault (based in Boulogne-Billancourt, France), Nissan (based in Yokohama, Japan) and Mitsubishi Motors (based in Tokyo, Japan), which together sell more than 1 in 9 vehicles worldwide. Renault and Nissan are strategic partners since 1999 and have nearly 450,000 employees and control eight major brands: Renault, Nissan, Mitsubishi, Infiniti, Renault Korea, Dacia, Alpine, and Venucia. The car group sold 10.6ย million vehicles worldwide in 2017, making it the leading light vehicle manufacturing group in the world. The Alliance adopted its current name in September 2017, one year after Nissan acquired a controlling interest in Mitsubishi and subsequently made Mitsubishi an equal partner in the Alliance.

As of Decemberย 2021, the Alliance is one of the world's leading electric vehicle manufacturing groups, with global sales of over 1ย million light-duty electric vehicles since 2009. The top selling vehicles of its EV line-up are the Nissan Leaf and the Renault Zoe all-electric cars.

The strategic partnership between Renault, Nissan and Mitsubishi is not a merger or an acquisition. The three companies are joined through a cross-sharing agreement. The structure was unique in the auto industry during the 1990s consolidation trend and later served as a model for General Motors and the PSA Group, and Mitsubishi, as well as the Volkswagen Group and Suzuki, though the latter combination failed. The Alliance itself has broadened its scope substantially, forming additional partnerships with automakers including Germany's Daimler and China's Dongfeng.

Following the November 2018 arrest and imprisonment of Alliance chairman and CEO Carlos Ghosn, accompanied by his dismissal from the alliance and its components, press analysts have questioned both the stability of the Alliance's shareholding agreement and its long-term existence. These analysts also note that, because the companies' recent business strategies are interdependent, attempts to restructure the Alliance could be counter-productive for all of the members.

In January 2023, Renault and Nissan moved to restructure their alliance in order to recover from Ghosn's arrest and manage through a post-Covid economy. The primary objective was to give both companies more autonomy.