Topic: Russia/technology and engineering in Russia

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๐Ÿ”— .su

๐Ÿ”— Internet ๐Ÿ”— Soviet Union ๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— History ๐Ÿ”— Computing ๐Ÿ”— Russia/technology and engineering in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/mass media in Russia

.su was assigned as the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Soviet Union (USSR) on 19 September 1990. Even though the Soviet Union itself was dissolved a mere 15 months later, the .su top-level domain remains in use today. It is administered by the Russian Institute for Public Networks (RIPN, or RosNIIROS in Russian transcription).

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  • ".su" | 2019-09-18 | 353 Upvotes 226 Comments

๐Ÿ”— The Buzzer

๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/technology and engineering in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/mass media in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Military history ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Military science, technology, and theory ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Intelligence ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Russian, Soviet and CIS military history ๐Ÿ”— Radio Stations

UVB-76, also known as "The Buzzer", is a nickname given by radio listeners to a shortwave radio station that broadcasts on the frequencies 4625 and 4810 kHz. It broadcasts a short, monotonous buzz toneย , repeating at a rate of approximately 25 tones per minute, 24 hours per day. Sometimes, the buzzer signal is interrupted and a voice transmission in Russian takes place. The first reports were made of a station on this frequency in 1973.

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๐Ÿ”— Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— Soviet Union ๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/technology and engineering in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Spaceflight ๐Ÿ”— Biography/science and academia ๐Ÿ”— Transhumanism ๐Ÿ”— Russia/science and education in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Biography/arts and entertainment ๐Ÿ”— Rocketry

Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (Russian: ะšะพะฝัั‚ะฐะฝั‚ะธฬะฝ ะญะดัƒะฐฬั€ะดะพะฒะธั‡ ะฆะธะพะปะบะพฬะฒัะบะธะน; 17 Septemberย [O.S. 5 September]ย 1857 โ€“ 19 September 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist who pioneered astronautics. Along with the Frenchman Robert Esnault-Pelterie, the Germans Hermann Oberth and Fritz von Opel, and the American Robert H. Goddard, he is one of the founding fathers of modern rocketry and astronautics. His works later inspired leading Soviet rocket-engineers Sergei Korolev and Valentin Glushko, who contributed to the success of the Soviet space program.

Tsiolkovsky spent most of his life in a log house on the outskirts of Kaluga, about 200ย km (120ย mi) southwest of Moscow. A recluse by nature, his unusual habits made him seem bizarre to his fellow townsfolk.

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๐Ÿ”— Gyrocar

๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/technology and engineering in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Automobiles

A gyrocar is a two-wheeled automobile. The difference between a bicycle or motorcycle and a gyrocar is that in a bike, dynamic balance is provided by the rider, and in some cases by the geometry and mass distribution of the bike itself, and the gyroscopic effects from the wheels. Steering a motorcycle is done by precessing the front wheel. In a gyrocar, balance was provided by one or more gyroscopes, and in one example, connected to two pendulums by a rack and pinion.

The concept was originally described in fiction in 1911 "Two Boys in a Gyrocar: The story of a New York to Paris Motor Race" by Kenneth Brown, (Houghton Mifflin Co). However the first prototype Gyrocar, The Shilovski Gyrocar, was commissioned in 1912 by the Russian Count Pyotr Shilovsky, a lawyer and member of the Russian royal family. It was manufactured to his design by the Wolseley Tool and Motorcar Company in 1914 and demonstrated in London the same year. The gyrocar was powered by a modified Wolseley C5 engine of 16โ€“20ย hp, with a bore of 90ย mm and a stroke of 121ย mm. It was mounted ahead of the radiator, driving the rear wheel through a conventional clutch and gear box. A transmission brake was fitted after the gearbox โ€“ there were no brakes on the wheels themselves. The weight of the vehicle was 2.75 tons and it had a very large turning radius.

In 1927 Louis Brennan, funded to the tune of ยฃ12,000 (plus a ยฃ2000 per year) by John Cortauld built a rather more successful gyrocar. Two contra-rotating gyros were housed under the front seats, spun in a horizontal plane at 3500 rpm by 24V electric motors powered from standard car batteries. This was the greatest speed obtainable with the electric motors available, and meant that each rotor had to weigh 200ย lb (91ย kg) to generate sufficient forces. Precession was in the vertical fore-aft plane. The car had a Morris Oxford engine, engine mountings, and gearbox. Two sidewheels (light aircraft tailwheels were used) were manually lowered on stopping; if the driver forgot and switched off the gyros and walked away, the car would continue to balance itself using the gyro momentum for a few minutes, and then the wheels would automatically be dropped to stop tipping.

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๐Ÿ”— Kuleshov effect

๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/technology and engineering in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Film ๐Ÿ”— Film/Filmmaking ๐Ÿ”— Russia/science and education in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/performing arts in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Film/Soviet and post-Soviet cinema

The Kuleshov effect is a film editing (montage) effect demonstrated by Soviet filmmaker Lev Kuleshov in the 1910s and 1920s. It is a mental phenomenon by which viewers derive more meaning from the interaction of two sequential shots than from a single shot in isolation.

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๐Ÿ”— The Dead Handโ€“Soviet semi-autonomous nuclear command and control system

๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/technology and engineering in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Military history ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Military science, technology, and theory ๐Ÿ”— Russia/Russian, Soviet, and CIS military history ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Russian, Soviet and CIS military history

Dead Hand (Russian: ะกะธัั‚ะตะผะฐ ยซะŸะตั€ะธะผะตั‚ั€ยป, Systema "Perimetr", lit. "Perimeter" System, with the GRAU Index 15E601, Cyrillic: 15ะญ601), also known as Perimeter, is a Cold War-era automatic nuclear weapons-control system (similar in concept to the American AN/DRC-8 Emergency Rocket Communications System) that was used by the Soviet Union. The system remains in use in the post-Soviet Russian Federation. An example of fail-deadly and mutual assured destruction deterrence, it can automatically initiate the launch of the Russian intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) by sending a pre-entered highest-authority order from the General Staff of the Armed Forces, Strategic Missile Force Management to command posts and individual silos if a nuclear strike is detected by seismic, light, radioactivity, and pressure sensors even with the commanding elements fully destroyed. By most accounts, it is normally switched off and is supposed to be activated during times of crisis; however, it is said to remain fully functional and able to serve its purpose whenever it may be needed.

๐Ÿ”— Kola Superdeep Borehole

๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/technology and engineering in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/science and education in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Geology

The Kola Superdeep Borehole (Russian: ะšะพะปัŒัะบะฐั ัะฒะตั€ั…ะณะปัƒะฑะพะบะฐั ัะบะฒะฐะถะธะฝะฐ) is the result of a scientific drilling project of the Soviet Union in the Pechengsky District, on the Kola Peninsula. The project attempted to drill as deep as possible into the Earth's crust. Drilling began on 24 May 1970 using the Uralmash-4E, and later the Uralmash-15000 series drilling rig. Boreholes were drilled by branching from a central hole. The deepest, SG-3, reached 12,262 metres (40,230ย ft; 7.619ย mi) in 1989 and is the deepest artificial point on Earth. The borehole is 23 centimetres (9ย in) in diameter.

In terms of true vertical depth, it is the deepest borehole in the world. For two decades it was also the world's longest borehole in terms of measured depth along the well bore, until it was surpassed in 2008 by the 12,289-metre-long (40,318ย ft) Al Shaheen oil well in Qatar, and in 2011 by the 12,345-metre-long (40,502ย ft) Sakhalin-I Odoptu OP-11 Well (offshore from the Russian island of Sakhalin).

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๐Ÿ”— Kyshtym Disaster

๐Ÿ”— Soviet Union ๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/technology and engineering in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Environment ๐Ÿ”— Disaster management ๐Ÿ”— Energy ๐Ÿ”— Russia/history of Russia ๐Ÿ”— Science Policy

The Kyshtym disaster, sometimes referred to as the Mayak disaster or Ozyorsk disaster in newer sources, was a radioactive contamination accident that occurred on 29 September 1957 at Mayak, a plutonium production site for nuclear weapons and nuclear fuel reprocessing plant located in the closed city of Chelyabinsk-40 (now Ozyorsk) in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union.

The disaster was the second worst nuclear incident (by radioactivity released) after the Chernobyl disaster. It measured as a Level 6 disaster on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES), making it the third highest on the INES (which ranks by population impact), behind Chernobyl (evacuated 335,000 people) and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (evacuated 154,000 people) which are both Level 7 on the INES. At least twenty-two villages were exposed to radiation from the Kyshtym disaster, with a total population of around 10,000 people evacuated. Some were evacuated after a week, but it took almost two years for evacuations to occur at other sites.

The disaster spread hot particles over more than 52,000 square kilometres (20,000ย sqย mi), where at least 270,000 people lived. Since Chelyabinsk-40 (later renamed Chelyabinsk-65 until 1994) was not marked on maps, the disaster was named after Kyshtym, the nearest known town.

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๐Ÿ”— Ilya Zhitomirskiy

๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Computing ๐Ÿ”— Russia/technology and engineering in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/mass media in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Internet culture ๐Ÿ”— New York City ๐Ÿ”— Biography/science and academia

Ilya Zhitomirskiy (12 October 1989 โ€“ 12 November 2011) was a Russian-American software developer and entrepreneur. Zhitomirskiy was a co-founder and developer of the Diaspora social network and the Diaspora free software that powers it.

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๐Ÿ”— Fabergรฉ Egg

๐Ÿ”— Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/technology and engineering in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Russia/history of Russia ๐Ÿ”— Gemology and Jewelry ๐Ÿ”— Russia/visual arts in Russia ๐Ÿ”— Gemology and Jewelry/Jewelry subpage

A Fabergรฉ egg (Russian: ัะนั†ะพ ะคะฐะฑะตั€ะถะตฬ, romanized:ย yaytso Faberzhe) is a jewelled egg created by the jewellery firm House of Fabergรฉ, in Saint Petersburg, Russia. As many as 69 were created, of which 57 survive today. Virtually all were manufactured under the supervision of Peter Carl Fabergรฉ between 1885 and 1917. The most famous are his 52 "Imperial" eggs, 46 of which survive, made for the Russian Tsars Alexander III and Nicholas II as Easter gifts for their wives and mothers. Fabergรฉ eggs are worth millions of dollars and have become symbols of opulence.

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