Topic: Middle Ages

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๐Ÿ”— Al-Jazari

๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— Biography/science and academia ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages ๐Ÿ”— Islam ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages/History ๐Ÿ”— Watches ๐Ÿ”— Islam/Muslim scholars

Badฤซสฟ az-Zaman Abu l-สฟIzz ibn Ismฤสฟฤซl ibn ar-Razฤz al-Jazarฤซ (1136โ€“1206, Arabic: ุจุฏูŠุน ุงู„ุฒู…ุงู† ุฃูŽุจู ุงูŽู„ู’ุนูุฒู ุฅุจู’ู†ู ุฅุณู’ู…ุงุนููŠู„ู ุฅุจู’ู†ู ุงู„ุฑูู‘ุฒุงุฒ ุงู„ุฌุฒุฑูŠโ€Ž, IPA:ย [รฆldส’รฆzรฆriห]) was a Muslim polymath: a scholar, inventor, mechanical engineer, artisan, artist and mathematician. He is best known for writing The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices (Arabic: ูƒุชุงุจ ููŠ ู…ุนุฑูุฉ ุงู„ุญูŠู„ ุงู„ู‡ู†ุฏุณูŠุฉโ€Ž, romanized:ย Kitab fi ma'rifat al-hiyal al-handasiya, lit.ย 'Book in knowledge of engineering tricks') in 1206, where he described 100 mechanical devices, some 80 of which are trick vessels of various kinds, along with instructions on how to construct them.

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๐Ÿ”— Smuggling of silkworm eggs into the Byzantine Empire

๐Ÿ”— Greece ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages/History ๐Ÿ”— Greece/Byzantine world ๐Ÿ”— Textile Arts

In the mid-6th century CE, two monks, with the support of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I, acquired and smuggled living silkworms into the Byzantine Empire, which led to the establishment of an indigenous Byzantine silk industry that long held a silk monopoly in Europe.

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๐Ÿ”— St Scholastica Day Riot (1355)

๐Ÿ”— Crime ๐Ÿ”— Law ๐Ÿ”— England ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages/History ๐Ÿ”— Law Enforcement ๐Ÿ”— Sociology ๐Ÿ”— University of Oxford ๐Ÿ”— British crime

The St Scholastica Day riot took place in Oxford, England, on 10 February 1355, Saint Scholastica's Day. The disturbance began when two students from the University of Oxford complained about the quality of wine served to them in the Swindlestock Tavern, which stood on Carfax, in the centre of the town. The students quarrelled with the taverner; the argument quickly escalated to blows. The inn's customers joined in on both sides, and the resulting melee turned into a riot. The violence started by the bar brawl continued over three days, with armed gangs coming in from the countryside to assist the townspeople. University halls and students' accommodation were raided and the inhabitants murdered; there were some reports of clerics being scalped. Around 30 townsfolk were killed, as were up to 63 members of the university.

Violent disagreements between townspeople and students had arisen several times previously, and 12 of the 29 coroners' courts held in Oxford between 1297 and 1322 concerned murders by students. The University of Cambridge was established in 1209 by scholars who left Oxford following the lynching of two students by the town's citizens.

King Edward III sent judges to the town with commissions of oyer and terminer to determine what had gone on and to advise what steps should be taken. He came down on the side of the university authorities, who were given additional powers and responsibilities to the disadvantage of the town's authorities. The town was fined 500 marks and its mayor and bailiffs were sent to the Marshalsea prison in London. John Gynwell, the Bishop of Lincoln, imposed an interdict on the town for one year, which banned all religious practices, including services (except on key feast days), burials and marriages; only baptisms of young children were allowed.

An annual penance was imposed on the town: each year, on St Scholastica's Day, the mayor, bailiffs and sixty townspeople were to attend a Mass at the University Church of St Mary the Virgin for those killed; the town was also made to pay the university a fine of one penny for each scholar killed. The practice was dropped in 1825; in 1955โ€”the 600th anniversary of the riotsโ€”in an act of conciliation the mayor was given an honorary degree and the vice-chancellor was made an honorary freeman of the city.

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๐Ÿ”— Locating a hospital by hanging meat around the city (981CE)

๐Ÿ”— Medicine ๐Ÿ”— Iran ๐Ÿ”— History of Science ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages ๐Ÿ”— Islam ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages/History ๐Ÿ”— Turkey

A bimaristan (Persian: ุจูŠู…ุงุฑุณุชุงู†โ€Ž, romanized:ย bฤซmฤrestฤn; Arabic: ุจููŠู’ู…ูŽุงุฑูุณู’ุชูŽุงู†โ€Ž, romanized:ย bฤซmฤristฤn), also known as dar al-shifa (also darรผลŸลŸifa in Turkish) or simply maristan, is a hospital in the historic Islamic world.

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๐Ÿ”— Al-Maสฟarri

๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages ๐Ÿ”— Islam ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages/History ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Philosophers ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Philosophy of religion ๐Ÿ”— Syria ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Ancient philosophy

Abลซ al-สฟAlฤสพ al-Maสฟarrฤซ (Arabic: ุฃุจูˆ ุงู„ุนู„ุงุก ุงู„ู…ุนุฑูŠโ€Žโ€Ž, full name ุฃุจูˆ ุงู„ุนู„ุงุก ุฃุญู…ุฏ ุจู† ุนุจุฏ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุจู† ุณู„ูŠู…ุงู† ุงู„ุชู†ูˆุฎูŠ ุงู„ู…ุนุฑูŠโ€Ž Abลซ al-สฟAlฤสพ Aแธฅmad ibn สฟAbd Allฤh ibn Sulaymฤn al-Tanลซkhฤซ al-Maสฟarrฤซ; December 973 โ€“ May 1057) was a blind Arab philosopher, poet, and writer. Despite holding a controversially irreligious worldview, he is regarded as one of the greatest classical Arabic poets.

Born in the city of Ma'arra during the Abbasid era, he studied in nearby Aleppo, then in Tripoli and Antioch. Producing popular poems in Baghdad, he nevertheless refused to sell his texts. In 1010, he returned to Syria after his mother began declining in health, and continued writing which gained him local respect.

Described as a "pessimistic freethinker", al-Ma'arri was a controversial rationalist of his time, citing reason as the chief source of truth and divine revelation. He was pessimistic about life, describing himself as "a double prisoner" of blindness and isolation. He attacked religious dogmas and practices, was equally critical and sarcastic about Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Zoroastrianism, and became a Deist.

He advocated social justice and lived a secluded, ascetic lifestyle. He was a vegan, known in his time as moral vegetarianism, entreating: "do not desire as food the flesh of slaughtered animals / Or the white milk of mothers who intended its pure draught / for their young". Al-Ma'arri held an antinatalist outlook, in line with his general pessimism, suggesting that children should not be born to spare them of the pains and suffering of life.

Al-Ma'arri wrote three main works that were popular in his time. Among his works are The Tinder Spark, Unnecessary Necessity, and The Epistle of Forgiveness. Al-Ma'arri never married and died at the age of 83 in the city where he was born, Ma'arrat al-Nu'man. In 2013, a statue of al-Ma'arri located in his Syrian hometown was beheaded by jihadists from the al-Nusra Front.

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๐Ÿ”— Sator Square

๐Ÿ”— Religion ๐Ÿ”— Classical Greece and Rome ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages/History ๐Ÿ”— Cryptography ๐Ÿ”— Cryptography/Computer science ๐Ÿ”— Latin ๐Ÿ”— Christianity ๐Ÿ”— Jewish history ๐Ÿ”— Occult ๐Ÿ”— Mysticism

The Sator Square (or Rotas Square) is a word square containing a five-word Latin palindrome. The earliest form has ROTAS as the top line, but in time the version with SATOR on the top line became dominant. It is a 5X5 square made up of five 5-letter words, thus consisting of 25 letters in total. These 25 letters are all derived from 8 Latin letters: 5 consonants (S, T, R, P, N) and 3 vowels (A, E, O).

In particular, this is a square 2D palindrome, which is when a square text admits four symmetries: identity, two diagonal reflections, and 180 degree rotation. As can be seen, the text may be read top-to-bottom, bottom-to-top, left-to-right, or right-to-left; and it may be rotated 180 degrees and still be read in all those ways.

The Sator Square is the earliest dateable 2D palindrome. It was found in the ruins of Pompeii, at Herculaneum, a city buried in the ash of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. It consists of a sentence written in Latin: "Sator Arepo Tenet Opera Rotas." Its translation has been the subject of speculation with no clear consensus; see below for details.

Other 2D Palindrome examples may be found carved on stone tablets or pressed into clay before being fired.

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๐Ÿ”— Abลซ Rayhฤn Bฤซrลซnฤซ -- Medieval Islamic Scientist, quite a read...

๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— Religion ๐Ÿ”— Iran ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy ๐Ÿ”— Biography/science and academia ๐Ÿ”— Astronomy ๐Ÿ”— History of Science ๐Ÿ”— Astrology ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages ๐Ÿ”— Islam ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages/History ๐Ÿ”— Central Asia ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Philosophers ๐Ÿ”— Anthropology ๐Ÿ”— Watches ๐Ÿ”— Philosophy/Medieval philosophy ๐Ÿ”— India

Abu Rayhan al-Biruni (973 โ€“ after 1050) was a Persian scholar and polymath. He was from Khwarazm โ€“ a region which encompasses modern-day western Uzbekistan, and northern Turkmenistan.

Al-Biruni was well versed in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist. He studied almost all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenuous work. Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni to conduct research and study to uncover certain findings. He lived during the Islamic Golden Age. In addition to this type of influence, Al-Biruni was also influenced by other nations, such as the Greeks, who he took inspiration from when he turned to studies of philosophy. He was conversant in Khwarezmian, Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, and also knew Greek, Hebrew and Syriac. He spent much of his life in Ghazni, then capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty, in modern-day central-eastern Afghanistan. In 1017 he travelled to the Indian subcontinent and authored a study of Indian culture Tฤrฤซkh al-Hind (History of India) after exploring the Hindu faith practiced in India. He was given the title "founder of Indology". He was an impartial writer on customs and creeds of various nations, and was given the title al-Ustadh ("The Master") for his remarkable description of early 11th-century India.

๐Ÿ”— Erdstall

๐Ÿ”— Europe ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages/History

An erdstall is a type of tunnel found across Europe. They are of unknown origin but are believed to date from the Middle Ages. A variety of purposes have been theorized, including that they were used as escape routes or hiding places, but the most prominent theory is that they served a religious or spiritual purpose.

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๐Ÿ”— William of Rubruck

๐Ÿ”— Biography ๐Ÿ”— France ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages/History ๐Ÿ”— Biography/arts and entertainment ๐Ÿ”— Christianity ๐Ÿ”— Catholicism ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages/Crusades ๐Ÿ”— Military history/Crusades ๐Ÿ”— Belgium ๐Ÿ”— Christianity/Christianity in China

William of Rubruck (Dutch: Willem van Rubroeck, Latin: Gulielmus de Rubruquis; fl.โ€‰1248โ€“1255) was a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer.

He is best known for his travels to various parts of the Middle East and Central Asia in the 13th century, including the Mongol Empire. His account of his travels is one of the masterpieces of medieval travel literature, comparable to those of Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta.

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๐Ÿ”— Phantom Time Hypothesis

๐Ÿ”— History ๐Ÿ”— Skepticism ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages ๐Ÿ”— Middle Ages/History ๐Ÿ”— Alternative Views ๐Ÿ”— Time

The phantom time hypothesis is a historical conspiracy theory asserted by Heribert Illig. First published in 1991, it hypothesizes a conspiracy by the Holy Roman Emperor Otto III, Pope Sylvester II, and possibly the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, to fabricate the Anno Domini dating system retrospectively, in order to place them at the special year of AD 1000, and to rewrite history to legitimize Otto's claim to the Holy Roman Empire. Illig believed that this was achieved through the alteration, misrepresentation and forgery of documentary and physical evidence. According to this scenario, the entire Carolingian period, including the figure of Charlemagne, is a fabrication, with a "phantom time" of 297 years (AD 614โ€“911) added to the Early Middle Ages.

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