Topic: Antarctica

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πŸ”— Antarctic English

πŸ”— Linguistics πŸ”— Antarctica πŸ”— Languages πŸ”— English Language

Antarctic English is a variety of the English language spoken by people living on the continent of Antarctica and within the subantarctic islands.:β€Šviiβ€Š Spoken primarily by scientists and workers in the Antarctic tourism industry, it consists of various unique words and is spoken with a unique accent. During the 19th and 20th centuries, Antarctic English was influenced by Spanish-speaking South Americans and Northern European explorers who introduced new words that continue to be used today.

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πŸ”— Antarctic Snow Cruiser

πŸ”— Antarctica πŸ”— Transport

The Antarctic Snow Cruiser was a vehicle designed from 1937 to 1939 under the direction of Thomas Poulter, intended to facilitate transport in Antarctica during the United States Antarctic Service Expedition (1939–41). The Snow Cruiser was also known as "The Penguin," "Penguin 1" or "Turtle" in some published material.

Poulter had been second in command of Byrd's Second Antarctic Expedition, launched in 1934. From his time in the Antarctic, Poulter had devised several innovative features. However, the massive Snow Cruiser generally failed to operate as hoped under the difficult conditions, and was eventually abandoned in Antarctica. Rediscovered under a deep layer of snow in 1958, it later disappeared again due to shifting ice conditions.

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πŸ”— Blue iceberg

πŸ”— Geography πŸ”— Antarctica πŸ”— Glaciers

A blue iceberg is visible after the ice from above the water melts, causing the smooth portion of ice from below the water to overturn. The rare blue ice is formed from the compression of pure snow, which then develops into glacial ice.

Icebergs may also appear blue due to light refraction and age. Older icebergs reveal vivid hues of green and blue, resulting from a high concentration of color, microorganisms, and compacted ice. One of the better known blue icebergs rests in the waters off Sermilik fjord near Greenland. It is described as an electric blue iceberg and is known to locals as "blue diamond".

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πŸ”— Boaty McBoatface

πŸ”— Internet culture πŸ”— Climate change πŸ”— Environment πŸ”— United Kingdom πŸ”— Antarctica πŸ”— Arctic πŸ”— Oceans πŸ”— Antarctica/British Antarctic Territory

Boaty McBoatface (also known as Boaty) is the British lead boat in a fleet of three robotic lithium battery–powered autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) of the Autosub Long Range (ALR) class. Launched in 2017 and carried on board the polar scientific research vessel RRS Sir David Attenborough, she is a focal point of the Polar Explorer Programme of the UK Government.

Boaty and her two fleet-mates are part of the UK National Marine Equipment Pool and owned by the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton. She is classified as an "autosub long range (ALR) autonomous underwater vehicle", and will use her onboard sensors to map the movement of deep waters that play a vital role in regulating the Earth's climate.

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πŸ”— Lowest temperature recorded on Earth

πŸ”— Physics πŸ”— Antarctica

The lowest natural temperature ever directly recorded at ground level on Earth is βˆ’89.2Β Β°C (βˆ’128.6Β Β°F; 184.0Β K) at the Soviet Vostok Station in Antarctica on 21 July 1983 by ground measurements.

On 10 August 2010, satellite observations showed a surface temperature of βˆ’93.2Β Β°C (βˆ’135.8Β Β°F; 180.0Β K) at 81.8Β°S 59.3Β°Eο»Ώ / -81.8; 59.3, along a ridge between Dome Argus and Dome Fuji, at 3,900Β m (12,800Β ft) elevation. The result was reported at the 46th annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco in December 2013; it is a provisional figure, and may be subject to revision. The value is not listed as the record lowest temperature as it was measured by remote sensing from satellite and not by ground-based thermometers, unlike the 1983 record. The temperature announced reflects that of the ice surface, while the Vostok readings measured the air above the ice, and so the two are not directly comparable. More recent work shows many locations in the high Antarctic where surface temperatures drop to approximately βˆ’98Β Β°C (βˆ’144Β Β°F; 175Β K). Due to the very strong temperature gradient near the surface, these imply near-surface air temperature minima of approximately βˆ’94Β Β°C (βˆ’137Β Β°F; 179Β K).

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πŸ”— The driest place on Earth has not seen rain for nearly 2M years

πŸ”— New Zealand πŸ”— Antarctica

The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a row of largely snow-free valleys in Antarctica, located within Victoria Land west of McMurdo Sound. The Dry Valleys experience extremely low humidity and surrounding mountains prevent the flow of ice from nearby glaciers. The rocks here are granites and gneisses, and glacial tills dot this bedrock landscape, with loose gravel covering the ground. It is one of the driest places on Earth and has not seen rain for nearly 2 million years.

The region is one of the world's most extreme deserts, and includes many features including Lake Vida, a saline lake, and the Onyx River, a meltwater stream and Antarctica's longest river. Although no living organisms have been found in the permafrost here, endolithic photosynthetic bacteria have been found living in the relatively moist interior of rocks, and anaerobic bacteria, with a metabolism based on iron and sulfur, live under the Taylor Glacier.

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πŸ”— Climate Change

πŸ”— Climate change πŸ”— Environment πŸ”— Geography πŸ”— Antarctica πŸ”— Arctic πŸ”— Geology πŸ”— Globalization πŸ”— Science Policy πŸ”— Weather πŸ”— Sanitation

Climate change includes both global warming driven by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns. Though there have been previous periods of climatic change, since the mid-20th century humans have had an unprecedented impact on Earth's climate system and caused change on a global scale.

The largest driver of warming is the emission of gases that create a greenhouse effect, of which more than 90% are carbon dioxide (CO
) and methane. Fossil fuel burning (coal, oil, and natural gas) for energy consumption is the main source of these emissions, with additional contributions from agriculture, deforestation, and manufacturing. The human cause of climate change is not disputed by any scientific body of national or international standing. Temperature rise is accelerated or tempered by climate feedbacks, such as loss of sunlight-reflecting snow and ice cover, increased water vapour (a greenhouse gas itself), and changes to land and ocean carbon sinks.

Temperature rise on land is about twice the global average increase, leading to desert expansion and more common heat waves and wildfires. Temperature rise is also amplified in the Arctic, where it has contributed to melting permafrost, glacial retreat and sea ice loss. Warmer temperatures are increasing rates of evaporation, causing more intense storms and weather extremes. Impacts on ecosystems include the relocation or extinction of many species as their environment changes, most immediately in coral reefs, mountains, and the Arctic. Climate change threatens people with food insecurity, water scarcity, flooding, infectious diseases, extreme heat, economic losses, and displacement. These impacts have led the World Health Organization to call climate change the greatest threat to global health in the 21st century. Even if efforts to minimise future warming are successful, some effects will continue for centuries, including rising sea levels, rising ocean temperatures, and ocean acidification.

Many of these impacts are already felt at the current level of warming, which is about 1.2Β Β°C (2.2Β Β°F). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has issued a series of reports that project significant increases in these impacts as warming continues to 1.5Β Β°C (2.7Β Β°F) and beyond. Additional warming also increases the risk of triggering critical thresholds called tipping points. Responding to climate change involves mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation – limiting climate change – consists of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and removing them from the atmosphere; methods include the development and deployment of low-carbon energy sources such as wind and solar, a phase-out of coal, enhanced energy efficiency, reforestation, and forest preservation. Adaptation consists of adjusting to actual or expected climate, such as through improved coastline protection, better disaster management, assisted colonisation, and the development of more resistant crops. Adaptation alone cannot avert the risk of "severe, widespread and irreversible" impacts.

Under the 2015 Paris Agreement, nations collectively agreed to keep warming "well under 2.0Β Β°C (3.6Β Β°F)" through mitigation efforts. However, with pledges made under the Agreement, global warming would still reach about 2.8Β Β°C (5.0Β Β°F) by the end of the century. Limiting warming to 1.5Β Β°C (2.7Β Β°F) would require halving emissions by 2030 and achieving near-zero emissions by 2050.

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πŸ”— Potential Collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

πŸ”— Climate change πŸ”— Environment πŸ”— Antarctica πŸ”— Glaciers

The Western Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is the segment of the continental ice sheet that covers West Antarctica, the portion of Antarctica on the side of the Transantarctic Mountains that lies in the Western Hemisphere. The WAIS is classified as a marine-based ice sheet, meaning that its bed lies well below sea level and its edges flow into floating ice shelves. The WAIS is bounded by the Ross Ice Shelf, the Ronne Ice Shelf, and outlet glaciers that drain into the Amundsen Sea.

πŸ”— .aq

πŸ”— Internet πŸ”— Computing πŸ”— Antarctica

.aq is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Antarctica (itself not a country). It is derived from the French Antarctique and is reserved for organizations that work in Antarctica or promote the Antarctic and Southern Ocean regions. It is administered by Peter Mott of Antarctica Network Information Centre Limited from Christchurch, New Zealand.

.aq domain names are available free of charge, and registration is granted for a period of 24 months. As a general rule, registrants are only allocated a single .aq domain name. The registry does not have a website. Registration is only possible by contacting Antarctica Network Information Centre Limited.

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  • ".aq" | 2024-05-16 | 12 Upvotes 2 Comments