Topic: Medicine/Emergency medicine and EMS

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πŸ”— Ice to treat soft-tissue injuries contraindicated by creator of protocol

πŸ”— Medicine πŸ”— Health and fitness πŸ”— Sports πŸ”— Medicine/Emergency medicine and EMS

RICE is a mnemonic acronym for the four elements of a treatment regimen that was once recommended for soft tissue injuries: rest, ice, compression, and elevation. It was considered a first-aid treatment rather than a cure and aimed to control inflammation. It was thought that the reduction in pain and swelling that occurred as a result of decreased inflammation helped with healing. The protocol was often used to treat sprains, strains, cuts, bruises, and other similar injuries. Ice has been used for injuries since at least the 1960s, in a case where a 12-year-old boy needed to have a limb reattached. The limb was preserved before surgery by using ice. As news of the successful operation spread, the use of ice to treat acute injuries became common.

The mnemonic was introduced by Dr. Gabe Mirkin in 1978. He withdrew his support of this regimen in 2014 after learning of the role of inflammation in the healing process. The implementation of RICE for soft tissue injuries as described by Dr. Mirkin is no longer recommended, as there is not enough research on the efficacy of RICE in the promotion of healing. In fact, many components of the protocol have since been shown to impair or delay healing by inhibiting inflammation. Early rehabilitation is now the recommendation to promote healing. Ice, compression, and elevation may have roles in decreasing swelling and pain, but have not shown to help with healing an injury.

There are different variations of the protocol, which may emphasize additional protective actions. However, these variations similarly lack sufficient evidence to be broadly recommended. Examples include PRICE, POLICE, and PEACE & LOVE.

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πŸ”— Covid-19 Vaccine Candidates

πŸ”— Disaster management πŸ”— Medicine πŸ”— Viruses πŸ”— COVID-19 πŸ”— Medicine/Pulmonology πŸ”— Medicine/Emergency medicine and EMS

A COVID-19 vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). Although no vaccine has completed clinical trials, there are multiple attempts in progress to develop such a vaccine. In February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) said it did not expect a vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative virus, to become available in less than 18 months. The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) – which is organizing a US$2 billion worldwide fund for rapid investment and development of vaccine candidates – indicated in April that a vaccine may be available under emergency use protocols in less than 12 months or by early 2021. On 4Β May 2020, the WHO organized a telethon to raise US$8 billion from forty countries to support rapid development of vaccines to prevent COVID-19 infections, also announcing deployment of an international "Solidarity trial" for simultaneous evaluation of several vaccine candidates reaching Phase II-III clinical trials.

By May, 159 vaccine candidates were in development, with five having been initiated in PhaseΒ I–II safety and efficacy studies in human subjects, and seven in PhaseΒ I trials.

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