Topic: Martial arts
Pankration (; Greek: παγκράτιον) was a sporting event introduced into the Greek Olympic Games in 648 BC and was an empty-hand submission sport with scarcely any rules. The athletes used boxing and wrestling techniques, but also others, such as kicking and holds, locks and chokes on the ground. The term comes from the Greek παγκράτιον [paŋkrátion], literally meaning "all of power" from πᾶν (pan) "all" and κράτος (kratos) "strength, might, power".
It was known in ancient times for its ferocity and allowance of such tactics as knees to the head and eye gouging. One ancient account tells of a situation in which the judges were trying to determine the winner of a match. The difficulty lay in that fact that both men had died in the arena from their injuries, making it hard to determine a victor. Eventually, the judges decided the winner was the one who didn't have his eyes gouged out. Over time, however, maneuvers like eye gouging were discouraged to prevent such unpleasant incidents.
- "Pankration" | 2015-04-09 | 16 Upvotes 18 Comments
Kimarite (決まり手, "Deciding technique") are winning techniques in a sumo bout. For each bout in a Grand Sumo tournament (or honbasho), a sumo referee, or gyōji, will decide and announce the type of kimarite used by the winner. It is possible (although rare) for the judges to modify this decision later. Records of the kimarite are kept and statistical information on the preferred techniques of different wrestlers can be deduced easily. For example, a pie chart of the kimarite used by each sekitori in the past year can be found on the Japan Sumo Association webpage.
Since 2001, the Japan Sumo Association recognizes 82 types of kimarite (and 5 winning non-techniques), but only about a dozen are used regularly. For example, yorikiri, oshidashi and hatakikomi are frequent methods used to win bouts. In addition to kimarite, a bout can end in a disqualification if either wrestler makes a foul (禁手, kinjite), such as striking with a closed fist.
The following is a full list of kimarite. Literal translations of the Japanese are also given.
- "TIL there are 82 named techniques (“kimarite”) for winning a sumo match" | 2021-05-12 | 22 Upvotes 4 Comments